Document Detail


Teratogen update: lead and pregnancy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15880700     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
This review focuses on the impacts of lead exposure on reproductive health and outcomes. High levels of paternal lead exposure (>40 microg/dl or >25 microg/dl for a period of years) appear to reduce fertility and to increase the risks of spontaneous abortion and reduced fetal growth (preterm delivery, low birth weight). Maternal blood lead levels of approximately 10 microg/dl have been linked to increased risks of pregnancy hypertension, spontaneous abortion, and reduced offspring neurobehavioral development. Somewhat higher maternal lead levels have been linked to reduced fetal growth. Some studies suggest a link between increased parental lead exposure and congenital malformations, although considerable uncertainty remains regarding the specific malformations and the dose-response relationships. Common methodological weaknesses of studies include potential exposure misclassifications due to the frequent unavailability of exposure biomarker measurements at biologically appropriate times and uncertainty regarding the best exposure biomarker(s) for the various outcomes. A special concern with regard to the pregnant woman is the possibility that a fetus might be exposed to lead mobilized from bone stores as a result of pregnancy-related metabolic changes, making fetal lead exposure the result of exposure to exogenous lead during pregnancy and exposure to endogenous lead accumulated by the woman prior to pregnancy. By reducing bone resorption, increased calcium intake during the second half of pregnancy might reduce the mobilization of lead from bone compartments, even at low blood lead levels. Subgroups of women who incurred substantial exposures to lead prior to pregnancy should be considered to be at increased risk.
Authors:
David C Bellinger
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology     Volume:  73     ISSN:  1542-0752     ISO Abbreviation:  Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.     Publication Date:  2005 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-06-13     Completed Date:  2005-10-04     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101155107     Medline TA:  Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  409-20     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Affiliation:
Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, Farley Basement Box 127, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. david.bellinger@childrens.harvard.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Bone and Bones / metabolism
Calcium / administration & dosage
Female
Humans
Lactation
Lead / pharmacokinetics,  toxicity*
Maternal Exposure*
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome
Teratogens / toxicity*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Teratogens; 7439-92-1/Lead; 7440-70-2/Calcium

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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