Document Detail

Teratogen-induced limb defects.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12357474     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Limb abnormalities are one of the most common and visible phenotypic effects of several human teratogens. The specific effects are different for most teratogens and include effects on limb morphogenesis (thalidomide, warfarin, phenytoin, valproic acid) and the effect of vascular disruption on a limb that had formed normally (misoprostol, chorionic villus sampling, and phenytoin). Either duplication (preaxial polydactyly of hands and feet) or deficiency (absence of thumb) is a common effect of thalidomide; no other human teratogen identified to date has this effect on the developing limb. Procedures during pregnancy, including chorionic villus sampling and dilation and curettage, produce defects of vascular disruption. For common exposures, such as alcohol and cocaine, it has been difficult to confirm objectively the exposure during embryogenesis and to ascribe specific limb defects that are produced. The molecular basis for the limb defects produced by the recognized human teratogens remains unknown.
Lewis B Holmes
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of medical genetics     Volume:  112     ISSN:  0148-7299     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Med. Genet.     Publication Date:  2002 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-10-01     Completed Date:  2003-03-17     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7708900     Medline TA:  Am J Med Genet     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  297-303     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Genetics and Teratology Unit, Pediatric Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Chorionic Villi Sampling / adverse effects
Limb Deformities, Congenital / chemically induced*,  etiology,  genetics
Misoprostol / adverse effects
Phenytoin / adverse effects
Pregnancy in Diabetics
Substance-Related Disorders / complications
Teratogens / toxicity*
Thalidomide / adverse effects
Valproic Acid / adverse effects
Warfarin / adverse effects
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Teratogens; 50-35-1/Thalidomide; 57-41-0/Phenytoin; 59122-46-2/Misoprostol; 81-81-2/Warfarin; 99-66-1/Valproic Acid

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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