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Tension and compression in the cytoskeleton of PC-12 neurites. II: Quantitative measurements.
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MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3417767     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
We assessed the mechanical properties of PC-12 neurites by applying a force with calibrated glass needles and measured resulting changes in neurite length and deflection of the needle. We observed a linear relationship between force and length change that was not affected by multiple distensions and were thus able to determine neurite spring constants and initial, nondistended, rest tensions. 81 out of 82 neurites showed positive rest tensions ranging over three orders of magnitude with most values clustering around 30-40 mu dynes. Treatment with cytochalasin D significantly reduced neurite rest tensions to an average compression equal to 14% of the former tension and spring constants to an average of 17% of resting values. Treatment with nocodazole increased neurite rest tensions to an average of 282% of resting values but produced no change in spring constant. These observations suggest a particular type of complementary force interaction underlying axonal shape; the neurite actin network under tension and neurite microtubules under compression. Thermodynamics suggests that microtubule (MT) assembly may be regulated by changes in compressive load. We tested this effect by releasing neurite attachment to a polylysine-coated surface with polyaspartate, thus shifting external compressive support onto internal elements, and measuring the relative change in MT polymerization using quantitative Western blotting. Neurons grown on polylysine or collagen without further treatment had a 1:2 ratio of soluble to polymerized tubulin. When neurites grown on polylysine were treated with 1% polyaspartate for 15-30 min, 80% of neurites retracted, shifting the soluble: polymerized tubulin ratio to 1:1. Polyaspartate treatment of cells grown on collagen, or grown on polylysine but treated with cytochalasin to reduce tension, caused neither retraction nor a change in the soluble:polymerized tubulin ratio. We suggest that the release of adhesion to the dish shifted the compressive load formerly borne by the dish onto Mts causing their partial depolymerization. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that alterations in MT compression during growth cone advance integrates MT assembly with the advance.
T J Dennerll; H C Joshi; V L Steel; R E Buxbaum; S R Heidemann
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of cell biology     Volume:  107     ISSN:  0021-9525     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Cell Biol.     Publication Date:  1988 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1988-10-21     Completed Date:  1988-10-21     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375356     Medline TA:  J Cell Biol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  665-74     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, E. Lansing 48824.
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MeSH Terms
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms
Axons / drug effects,  physiology,  ultrastructure*
Benzimidazoles / pharmacology
Cytochalasin D
Cytochalasins / pharmacology
Cytoskeleton / drug effects,  physiology,  ultrastructure*
Dimethyl Sulfoxide / pharmacology
Microtubule Proteins / analysis
Surface-Active Agents / pharmacology
Tubulin / analysis
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Benzimidazoles; 0/Cytochalasins; 0/Microtubule Proteins; 0/Polymers; 0/Surface-Active Agents; 0/Tubulin; 22144-77-0/Cytochalasin D; 31430-18-9/Nocodazole; 67-68-5/Dimethyl Sulfoxide

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): J Cell Biol
ISSN: 0021-9525
ISSN: 1540-8140
Publisher: The Rockefeller University Press
Article Information
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Print publication date: Day: 1 Month: 8 Year: 1988
Volume: 107 Issue: 2
First Page: 665 Last Page: 674
ID: 2115196
Publisher Id: 88331071
PubMed Id: 3417767

Tension and compression in the cytoskeleton of PC-12 neurites. II: Quantitative measurements

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