Document Detail

Tensile properties of the in vivo human gastrocnemius tendon.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12445617     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In the present experiment we obtained the tensile properties of the human gastrocnemius tendon, a high-stressed tendon suitable for spring-like action during locomotion. Measurements were taken in vivo in six men. The gastrocnemius tendon elongation during tendon loading-unloading induced by muscle contraction-relaxation was measured using real-time ultrasonography. Tendon forces were calculated from the moment generated during isometric plantarflexion contraction, using tendon moment arm length data obtained in vivo with the tendon travel method. Tendon stiffness data were calculated from the slope of the tendon force-elongation curve, and were then normalized to the tendon's original dimensions, obtained from morphometric analysis of sonographs, to estimate the tendon Young's modulus. Mechanical hysteresis values were obtained from area calculations by numerical integration. The elongation of the tendon increased curvilinearly with the force acting upon it, from 1.7+/-1mm (0.8+/-0.3% strain) at 87.5+/-8.5 N to 11.1+/-3.1mm (4.9+/-1% strain) at 875+/-85 N. The tendon Young's modulus and mechanical hysteresis were 1.16+/-0.15 GPa and 18+/-3%, respectively. These values fall within the range of values obtained from in vitro experiments and are very similar to the respective values recently obtained from in vivo measurements in the less highly stressed human tibialis anterior tendon (1.2 GPa and 19%), thus indicating that the material properties of tendon are independent of physiological loading and function. Combining the present tendon force-elongation data with previously reported Achilles tendon force data recorded during walking indicates that the gastrocnemius tendon would provide approximately 6% of the total external work produced by the locomotor system. This estimate illustrates the contribution of passive elastic mechanisms on the economy and efficiency of walking. The contributions would be greater in more active exercise such as running.
Constantinos N Maganaris; John P Paul
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of biomechanics     Volume:  35     ISSN:  0021-9290     ISO Abbreviation:  J Biomech     Publication Date:  2002 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-11-26     Completed Date:  2003-04-09     Revised Date:  2009-11-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0157375     Medline TA:  J Biomech     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1639-46     Citation Subset:  IM    
Centre for Biophysical and Clinical Research into Human Movement, Manchester Metropolitan University, Alsager ST7 2HL, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Achilles Tendon / physiology*,  ultrasonography*
Locomotion / physiology
Muscle Contraction / physiology
Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*,  ultrasonography*
Nonlinear Dynamics
Physical Exertion / physiology
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and Specificity
Stress, Mechanical
Tensile Strength / physiology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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