Document Detail

Temporal trends (1986-2004) of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in tawny owl eggs from northern Europe.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18200884     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Eggs (n = 139) from tawny owls (Strix aluco) were collected annually (1986-2004) in Central Norway and analyzed for organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs). p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the dominating contaminants (mean/median = 2.7/1.7 and 2.9/1.6 microg/g, lipid weight [l.w.], respectively), comprising 90% of the contaminant burden. Other OCs (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], hexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane) comprised less than 4% of the contaminant burden. Concentrations of OCs dropped 74-96% during the study period; p,p'-DDE, HCB, beta-HCH, oxychlordane, and PCBs decreased rapidly in the early (1986-1989) study period (23-34% per year; mean = 27.4%), but leveled off to less than 7% (mean = 3.6%) in the late period (2001-2004). The decrease in p,p'-DDE concentrations leveled off in the early 1990s, possibly due to an early ban on the use of DDT. alpha-HCH showed the strongest decline (always > 20% per year), while trans-nonachlor and gamma-HCH dropped at a constant rate of 9% per year. Toxaphene made up less than 0.6% of the measured contaminants (mean/median = 39/13 ng/ g, l.w.), and the concentrations of these compounds were lower in the late period compared to the early period, but not significant. BFRs, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sigmaPBDE: mean/median = 182/ 85 ng/g, l.w.) made up about 3% of the measured contaminants. sigmaPBDE declined significantly over the study period (62%). Most PBDE congeners declined: significantly for BDE-47 (80% reduction) and BDE-153 (50% reduction), but the patterns differed; i.e., congeners associated with PentaBDE mixtures showed a rapid annual decline early (22-26%) and a slower decline late in the study period (6-12%), while the PBDEs associated with OctaBDE declined at a constant rate (1-4%). This may result from a larger reduction in the use of PentaBDE compared to other PBDE products in Europe.
Jan O Bustnes; Nigel G Yoccoz; Georg Bangjord; Anuschka Polder; Janneche U Skaare
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  41     ISSN:  0013-936X     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2007 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-01-18     Completed Date:  2008-03-12     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  8491-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, The Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromsø, Norway.
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MeSH Terms
Bromine / analysis*
Eggs / analysis*
Flame Retardants / analysis*
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Flame Retardants; 0/Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated; 7726-95-6/Bromine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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