Document Detail


Temporal and spatial variability of personal exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19476932     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the population's exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in industrialized countries. OBJECTIVES: To examine levels of exposure and the importance of different RF-EMF sources and settings in a sample of volunteers living in a Swiss city. METHODS: RF-EMF exposure of 166 volunteers from Basel, Switzerland, was measured with personal exposure meters (exposimeters). Participants carried an exposimeter for 1 week (two separate weeks in 32 participants) and completed an activity diary. Mean values were calculated using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method. RESULTS: Mean weekly exposure to all RF-EMF sources was 0.13 mW/m(2) (0.22 V/m) (range of individual means 0.014-0.881 mW/m(2)). Exposure was mainly due to mobile phone base stations (32.0%), mobile phone handsets (29.1%) and digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) phones (22.7%). Persons owning a DECT phone (total mean 0.15 mW/m(2)) or mobile phone (0.14 mW/m(2)) were exposed more than those not owning a DECT or mobile phone (0.10 mW/m(2)). Mean values were highest in trains (1.16 mW/m(2)), airports (0.74 mW/m(2)) and tramways or buses (0.36 mW/m(2)), and higher during daytime (0.16 mW/m(2)) than nighttime (0.08 mW/m(2)). The Spearman correlation coefficient between mean exposure in the first and second week was 0.61. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to RF-EMF varied considerably between persons and locations but was fairly consistent within persons. Mobile phone handsets, mobile phone base stations and cordless phones were important sources of exposure in urban Switzerland.
Authors:
Patrizia Frei; Evelyn Mohler; Georg Neubauer; Gaston Theis; Alfred Bürgi; Jürg Fröhlich; Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer; John Bolte; Matthias Egger; Martin Röösli
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2009-05-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental research     Volume:  109     ISSN:  1096-0953     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Res.     Publication Date:  2009 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-07-06     Completed Date:  2009-07-17     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0147621     Medline TA:  Environ Res     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  779-85     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cellular Phone / standards
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects*
Environmental Exposure / analysis*
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Radiation Monitoring / methods*
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and Specificity
Switzerland
Young Adult

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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