Document Detail

Systematic biases in cross-sectional community studies may underestimate the effectiveness of stop-smoking medications.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22318689     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
INTRODUCTION: Randomized, controlled trials typically indicate stop-smoking medications (SSMs: e.g., Varenicline, Bupropion, and over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapies) to be effective, whereas cross-sectional community-based studies have found them to be less effective, ineffective, or even associated with higher risk of relapse. Consequently, some critics have suggested SSMs have no useful applications in "real-world" settings. This discrepancy may, however, be due to systematic biases affecting cross-sectional survey outcomes. Namely, failed quit attempts where SSMs were used may be better recalled than failed unassisted attempts. Moreover, smokers who choose to quit using SSMs may be more addicted and thus less likely to succeed. Either of these factors would lead to an over-representation of failed quit attempts among SSM users in cross-sectional surveys even if there were real benefits.
METHODS: We report on data from the International Tobacco Control 4-country cohort study to examine the relationship between SSM use, level of nicotine addiction, and the reported date since the start of participants' (N = 1,101) most recent quit attempt.
RESULTS: The last quit attempt was reported to have begun longer ago among participants who used SSMs than those who did not. Scores on the Heaviness of Smoking Index, measuring addiction severity, were also higher among SSM users, with no interactions.
CONCLUSION: Better recall of quit attempts and stronger addiction to nicotine are two characteristics found more often among smokers using SSMs compared with self-quitters, which could potentially bias the assessed effects of SSMs on cessation outcomes in cross-sectional surveys.
Ron Borland; Timea R Partos; K Michael Cummings
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-02-07
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco     Volume:  14     ISSN:  1469-994X     ISO Abbreviation:  Nicotine Tob. Res.     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-30     Completed Date:  2013-05-29     Revised Date:  2013-12-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9815751     Medline TA:  Nicotine Tob Res     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1483-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Bias (Epidemiology)*
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies / methods*
Data Collection
Interviews as Topic
Middle Aged
Nicotinic Agonists / therapeutic use*
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / methods*
Smoking / drug therapy*,  prevention & control*
Smoking Cessation / statistics & numerical data*
Grant Support
57897//Canadian Institutes of Health Research; 79551//Canadian Institutes of Health Research; C312/A3726//Cancer Research UK; P01 CA138389/CA/NCI NIH HHS; P50 CA111236/CA/NCI NIH HHS; R01 CA 100362/CA/NCI NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Nicotinic Agonists
Comment In:
Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Mar;15(3):754-5   [PMID:  23024244 ]
Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Mar;15(3):752-3   [PMID:  23024243 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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