Document Detail

Synthesis of highly (13)C enriched carotenoids: access to carotenoids enriched with (13)c at any position and combination of positions.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22428113     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Carotenoids and their metabolites are essential factors for the maintenance of important life processes such as photosynthesis. Animals cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo, they must obtain them via their food. In order to make intensive animal husbandry possible and maintain human and animal health synthetic nature identical carotenoids are presently commercially available at the multi-tonnes scale per year. Synthetically accessible (13)C enriched carotenoids are essential to apply isotope sensitive techniques to obtain information at the atomic level without perturbation about the role of carotenoids in photosynthesis, nutrition, vision, animal development, etc. Simple highly (13)C enriched C(1), C(2) and C(3) building blocks are commercially available via 99% (13)CO. The synthetic routes for the preparation of the (13)C enriched building blocks starting from the commercially available systems are discussed first. Then, how these building blocks are used for the synthesis of the various (13)C enriched carotenoids and apocarotenoids are reviewed next. The synthetic Schemes that resulted in (13)C enriched β-carotene, spheroidene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin and (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein are described. The Schemes that are reviewed can also be used to synthetically access any carotenoid and apocarotenoid in any (13)C isotopically enriched form up to the unitarily enriched form.
Johan Lugtenburg; Prativa B S Dawadi
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-3-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta biochimica Polonica     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1734-154X     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-3-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  14520300R     Medline TA:  Acta Biochim Pol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherland.
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