Document Detail

Swimming training lowers the resting blood pressure in individuals with hypertension.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9218185     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that swimming is often recommended for the prevention and treatment of hypertension, no study has examined the potential efficacy of regular swimming exercise for lowering the blood pressure in hypertensive humans. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that regular swimming exercise lowers the resting blood pressure. DESIGN: A 10-week closely supervised swimming training program compared with a non-exercising control group. PATIENTS: Eighteen previously sedentary men and women [aged 48 +/- 2 years (mean +/- SEM)] with stage 1 or 2 essential hypertension. RESULTS: The resting heart rated, an index of cardiovascular adaptation, decreased in the swimming training group from 81 +/- 4 to 71 +/- 3 beats/min (P < 0.01). The body mass and body fat percentage did not show statistically significant changes. The systolic blood pressure of patients in the seated position fell significantly (P < 0.05) from 150 +/- 5 to 144 +/- 4 mmHg. The seated diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. A similar magnitude of reductions in systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) was also found in patients in the supine position. No significant changes in plasma catecholamine concentrations, casual forearm vascular resistance, plasma volume and blood volume were observed. There were no significant changes in any of these variables in the control group. CONCLUSION: Swimming training elicits significant reductions in arterial blood pressure at rest in individuals with hypertension. This is a clinically important finding since swimming can be a highly useful alternative to land-based exercises for hypertensive patients with obesity, exercise-induced asthma, or orthopedic injuries.
H Tanaka; D R Bassett; E T Howley; D L Thompson; M Ashraf; F L Rawson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of hypertension     Volume:  15     ISSN:  0263-6352     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Hypertens.     Publication Date:  1997 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-09-10     Completed Date:  1997-09-10     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8306882     Medline TA:  J Hypertens     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  651-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Exercise Science Department, University of Tennessee-Knoxville 37996-2700, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Blood Flow Velocity
Blood Pressure
Blood Volume
Epinephrine / blood
Exercise Therapy / methods*
Heart Rate
Hypertension / physiopathology,  therapy*
Middle Aged
Norepinephrine / blood
Plasma Volume
Swimming / physiology*
Vascular Resistance
Reg. No./Substance:
51-41-2/Norepinephrine; 51-43-4/Epinephrine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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