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Swimming exercise increases the level of nerve growth factor and stimulates neurogenesis in adult rat hippocampus.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22516011     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
We investigated the effects of swimming and treadmill exercise on the level of nerve growth factor (NGF) protein and neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and cognitive function of adult rats over a period of 8 weeks. We divided 144 male Sprague-Dawley rats into 3 groups: (1) a control group (COG; total n = 48, n = 8 for each time-point), (2) a swimming exercise group (SEG; total n = 48; n = 8 for each time-point), and (3) a treadmill exercise group (TEG; total n = 48, n = 8 for each time-point). The SEG and TEG were made to perform their respective exercise type for 5 days per week over a period of 8 weeks. The level of NGF on the second day, and after the first, second, and fourth week increased significantly in the SEG and TEG, compared to the COG (p < 0.001 for each time-point). Specifically, a significant increase was observed in the SEG at the 2-day, 2-week, and 4-week time-points. A significant difference in the number of BrdU-positive cells was found between groups at all time-points (6 months: p < 0.05; 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 3 months: p < 0.01; 1 week: p < 0.001). Specifically, a significant increase was observed in the SEG at the 1-week and 4-week time-points. The number of NeuN-positive cells in the SEG increased significantly at all time-points (2 weeks: p < 0.01; 2 days, 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months: p < 0.001). The number of DCX-positive cells between groups was also significantly different at all time-points, except for the fourth week, (6 months: p < 0.05; 2 days: p < 0.01; 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 months: p < 0.001). Specifically, a significant increase was observed in the SEG at the 3-month time-point. These results show that regular exercise in adult rats increased the level of NGF in the hippocampus, increased the number of newly proliferated nerve cells, and extended the period of neuron survival and maintenance. Furthermore, this phenomenon was more apparent when the exercise form was swimming.
Authors:
Chang-Hun Chae; Hyo-Chul Lee; Sung-Lim Jung; Tae-Wan Kim; Jong-Hyuck Kim; Nam-Jung Kim; Hyun-Tae Kim
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-4-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neuroscience     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1873-7544     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-4-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7605074     Medline TA:  Neuroscience     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Affiliation:
School of Sport Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746, South of Korea.
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