Document Detail

Susceptibility of duck and turkey to severe hypercapnic hypoxia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16776475     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Large groups of poultry, including ducks and turkeys, are killed for disease control purposes with CO2. In this study, we examined the physiological reaction of White Pekin ducks and turkeys to increasing CO2 concentrations. Additionally, we examined the suitability of killing both species with increasing CO2 concentrations. Blood gas values showed similar reaction patterns for both species: a strong increase in pCO2 from approximately 40 to 200 mmHg, decreasing pO2 and O2 saturation, a decrease in pH from 7.4 to 6.7, and a strong shift in acid-base equilibrium (averaging 0 to -23). On the electroencephalogram, theta and sigma waves occurred at 21 to 23% CO2, and suppression to a near isoelectric electroencephalogram occurred between 41.8 and 43.4% CO2 in inhaled air. Heartbeat declined from approximately 300 beats per min (bpm) at the start to 225 bpm at loss of posture to 150 bpm at 1 min before the heartbeat ceased. During the last phase of heart activity, an irregular rhythm and fibrillation were observed in addition to a decline in bpm. Blood gas values and electrophysiological data confirmed that ducks and turkeys lose consciousness before a level of 25% CO2 in inhaled air is reached and that both ducks and turkeys die within 13 min in an environment of 45% CO2 in inhaled air.
M A Gerritzen; E Lambooij; H G M Reimert; B M Spruijt; J A Stegeman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Poultry science     Volume:  85     ISSN:  0032-5791     ISO Abbreviation:  Poult. Sci.     Publication Date:  2006 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-06-16     Completed Date:  2006-07-05     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401150     Medline TA:  Poult Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1055-61     Citation Subset:  IM    
Animal Sciences Group of Wageningen University and Research Centre, Lelystad, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Acid-Base Equilibrium
Carbon Dioxide / administration & dosage*,  blood
Ducks / physiology*
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Oxygen / blood
Time Factors
Turkeys / physiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
124-38-9/Carbon Dioxide; 7782-44-7/Oxygen

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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