Document Detail


Sulfur mustard toxicity: History, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21329486     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims.
Authors:
Kamyar Ghabili; Paul S Agutter; Mostafa Ghanei; Khalil Ansarin; Yunes Panahi; Mohammadali M Shoja
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-2-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Critical reviews in toxicology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1547-6898     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-2-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8914275     Medline TA:  Crit Rev Toxicol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
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