Document Detail

Stroke: current concepts.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25490795     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) are the leading cause of disability and the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. The WHO defines stroke as "rapidly developing clinical signs of focal disturbance of cerebral function lasting more than 24 hours with no apparent cause other than of vascular origin." Strokes are subdivided into two major classifications: ischemic (80-87 percent) andhemorrhagic (13-20 percent). Ischemic strokes occur from thrombi, emboli, or global hypoperfusion. Hemorrhagic strokes are either parenchymal (10 percent of all strokes) or subarachnoid (3 percent of all strokes). There are a variety of recognized risk factors for stroke which include: age, race, family history, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmias, prosthetic valves, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, and others (drugs or hormones). The initial assessment of a patient suspected of stroke should be done quickly enough to ensure maximal reperfusion of brain tissue. The steps to achieve this goal are: 1) exclude an intracranial hemorrhage, 2) assess for contraindications to thrombolytics, 3) characterize the infarct. The workup for a patient should first include a history (especially the time when neurologic symptoms began), a physical exam (including the NIHSS), and imaging studies (to rule out hemorrhagic components). In addition, several lab studies can also be obtained including: PT/INR, glucose, complete blood count, metabolic panel, creatine kinase, ECG, echocardiogram, lipid panel, carotid Doppler, MRA or CTA. Acute management of a stroke is primarily focused on stabilizing the patient and allowing as much reperfusion as possible for at-risk brain tissue. Stroke management in the acute setting includes: use of thrombolytics if indicated, and re-assessment to monitor progression. Several trials have been completed in pursuit of safety and effectiveness of intra-arterial stroke therapy for patients outside the recommended thrombolytic time window, but so far they are only experimental treatment options. The best preventative measures for first time or recurrent stroke are: starting or switching antiplatelet therapy, treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (atrial fibrillation and carotid stenosis), optimization of hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus management, and smoking cessation.
Megan Albertson; Jitendra Sharma
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  South Dakota medicine : the journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association     Volume:  67     ISSN:  0038-3317     ISO Abbreviation:  S D Med     Publication Date:  2014 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-12-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101265265     Medline TA:  S D Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  455, 457-61, 463-5     Citation Subset:  IM    
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