Document Detail

Stress prompts habit behavior in humans.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19494141     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Instrumental behavior can be controlled by goal-directed action-outcome and habitual stimulus-response processes that are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Based on previous findings showing that stress modulates the interaction of "cognitive" and "habit" memory systems, we asked in the presented study whether stress may coordinate goal-directed and habit processes in instrumental learning. For this purpose, participants were exposed to stress (socially evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition before they were trained to perform two instrumental actions that were associated with two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of these food outcomes was selectively devalued as subjects were saturated with that food. Next, subjects were presented the two instrumental actions in extinction. Stress before training in the instrumental task rendered participants' behavior insensitive to the change in the value of the food outcomes, that is stress led to habit performance. Moreover, stress reduced subjects' explicit knowledge of the action-outcome contingencies. These results demonstrate for the first time that stress promotes habits at the expense of goal-directed performance in humans.
Lars Schwabe; Oliver T Wolf
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience     Volume:  29     ISSN:  1529-2401     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Neurosci.     Publication Date:  2009 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-06-04     Completed Date:  2009-06-22     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8102140     Medline TA:  J Neurosci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  7191-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Cognitive Psychology, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Analysis of Variance
Blood Pressure / physiology
Conditioning, Operant / physiology*
Extinction, Psychological / physiology
Hydrocortisone / metabolism
Psychomotor Performance / physiology*
Reinforcement (Psychology)
Saliva / metabolism
Satiation / physiology
Stress, Psychological / physiopathology*
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:

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