Document Detail

Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of protein amino acids on growth rate and efficiency of mixed ruminal bacteria.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12214994     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Mixed ruminal bacteria were incubated in vitro with glucose, xylose, cellobiose, and various protein amino acids replaced isonitrogenously with 25% (i.e., 25 mg of N/L) of ammonia-N, to determine the growth rate and the amount of sugar consumed in the exponential growth phase. The growth rate and efficiency (grams of bacteria per gram of sugars) increased by 46 and 15%, respectively, when a mixture of 20 amino acids was added. On the other hand, neither growth rate nor efficiency increased when any one of these amino acids was added singly, except for Glu and Gln, each of which produced significant but small improvements. The stimulatory effect of the combined amino acids on bacterial growth declined when each of Leu, Trp, Tyr, Glu, Met, Phe, and Val was removed from the original group of 20. When a mixture of only these seven amino acids was used as a supplement, their stimulatory effects on growth rate and efficiency were only 21 and 25%, respectively, of the effects that the mixture of 20 amino acids showed. The effects increased to 76 and 72% on growth rate and efficiency, respectively, when Gly, Cys, and His were supplied in addition to the seven amino acids. The growth rate and efficiency of the ruminal bacteria were inhibited by an addition of each of Ile, Thr, Cys, Phe, Leu, Lys, or Val to ammonia-N, and the effects of the first five of these amino acids were highly significant. Isoleucine, threonine, and phenylalanine were each inhibitory even at a low concentration (1 mg of NL), while cysteine and leucine showed inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (more than 10 mg of N/L). A higher growth rate of the ruminal bacteria when supplemented with amino acid mixtures was accompanied with a higher growth efficiency, which was attributable to a relatively smaller proportion of energy expended on maintenance according to the Pirt derivation.
H Kajikawa; M Mitsumori; S Ohmomo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of dairy science     Volume:  85     ISSN:  0022-0302     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Dairy Sci.     Publication Date:  2002 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-09-06     Completed Date:  2003-01-24     Revised Date:  2003-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985126R     Medline TA:  J Dairy Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2015-22     Citation Subset:  IM    
National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Tsukuba Norindanchi, Ibaraki, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Ammonia / pharmacology
Bacteria / drug effects,  growth & development*,  metabolism*
Cellobiose / metabolism
Cysteine / pharmacology
Glucose / metabolism
Glutamic Acid / pharmacology
Glutamine / pharmacology
Isoleucine / pharmacology
Leucine / pharmacology
Nitrogen / pharmacology
Phenylalanine / pharmacology
Rumen / microbiology*
Xylose / metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Xylose; 16462-44-5/Cellobiose; 50-99-7/Glucose; 52-90-4/Cysteine; 56-85-9/Glutamine; 56-86-0/Glutamic Acid; 61-90-5/Leucine; 63-91-2/Phenylalanine; 73-32-5/Isoleucine; 7664-41-7/Ammonia; 7727-37-9/Nitrogen

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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