Document Detail

Stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis activity in brown rice by a chitosan/glutamic acid germination solution and calcium/calmodulin.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12787489     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Changes in the concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), soluble calcium ions, glutamic acid, and the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) were investigated in non-germinated vs. germinated brown rice. Brown rice was germinated for 72 h by applying each of the following solutions: (1) distilled water, (2) 5 mM lactic acid, (3) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM lactic acid, (4) 5 mM glutamic acid, and (5) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid. GABA concentrations were enhanced in all of the germinated brown rice when compared to the non-germinated brown rice. The GABA concentration was highest in the chitosan/glutamic acid that germinated brown rice at 2,011 nmol/g fresh weight, which was 13 times higher than the GABA concentration in the non-germinated brown rice at 154 nmol/g fresh weight. The concentrations of glutamic acid were significantly decreased in all of the germinated rice, regardless of the germination solution. Soluble calcium and GAD were higher in the germinated brown rice with the chitosan/glutamic acid solution when compared to the rice that was germinated in the other solutions. GAD that was partially purified from germinated brown rice was stimulated about 3.6-fold by the addition of calmodulin in the presence of calcium. These data show that the germination of brown rice in a chitosan/glutamic acid solution can significantly increase GABA synthesis activity and the concentration of GABA.
Suk-Heung Oh
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology     Volume:  36     ISSN:  1225-8687     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Biochem. Mol. Biol.     Publication Date:  2003 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-06-05     Completed Date:  2004-02-13     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9702084     Medline TA:  J Biochem Mol Biol     Country:  Korea (South)    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  319-25     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biotechnology, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701, Korea.
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MeSH Terms
Calcium / metabolism,  pharmacology*
Calmodulin / pharmacology*
Chitin / analogs & derivatives*,  pharmacology*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Germination / drug effects,  physiology
Glutamate Decarboxylase / metabolism
Glutamic Acid / metabolism,  pharmacology*
Lactic Acid / pharmacology
Seeds / drug effects*,  enzymology,  metabolism
Water / pharmacology
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / biosynthesis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Calmodulin; 1398-61-4/Chitin; 50-21-5/Lactic Acid; 56-12-2/gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; 56-86-0/Glutamic Acid; 7440-70-2/Calcium; 7732-18-5/Water; 9012-76-4/Chitosan; EC Decarboxylase

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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