Document Detail

Spiral artery associated restricted growth (SPAARG): a computer model of pathophysiology resulting from low intervillous pressure having fetal programming implications.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15364119     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Failure of adequate trophoblastic conversion of maternal spiral arteries is associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In addition to poor oxygen delivery, raised spiral artery resistance reduces placental intervillous pressure. An iterative type computer model was formed by linking an existing model of the fetus and a new nine cotyledon placental model. Simulation of compression cuffing of the spiral arteries to progressively restrict uteroplacental flow was performed, while observing various fetal and placental variables. Water moved to the fetus in the cotyledonary core villi, and to the mother in the outer villous layers. While the fetus could match villous capillary pressure to changes in intervillous pressure, net transplacental water movement was minimal, but when spiral artery resistance was increased sufficiently to cause mean intervillous pressure to fall below that which the fetus could match, a net flow to the mother appeared. That continued until the resulting fetal blood hemoconcentration produced a sufficient increase in colloid osmotic pressure to restrict further loss. All cells within the fetal-placental unit are then required to operate in an abnormal ionic environment, which may significantly affect systems such as the renin-angiotensin set-point, with implications for post-natal homeostasis such as control of adult blood pressure. Furthermore, in vivo, cells of the feto-placental unit respond to the increased intravascular osmotic pressure by production of intracellular osmolytes in order to match intracellular and vascular/interstitial osmotic pressures. This may explain the observed effects on postnatal water balance in growth restricted infants and could also provide a possible mechanism for the association of the systemic maternal complications associated with impaired placentation and reduced intervillus flow.
N.J. Sebire; V. Jain; D.G. Talbert
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Publication Detail:
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology / ISP     Volume:  11     ISSN:  -     ISO Abbreviation:  Pathophysiology     Publication Date:  2004 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-Sep-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9433813     Medline TA:  Pathophysiology     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  87-94     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, WC1N, UK.
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