Document Detail


Source characterization of major emission sources in the imperial and Mexicali Valleys along the US/Mexico border.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11516138     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Chemical profiles for particle emissions are needed for source apportionment studies using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Source measurements of geological sources, motor vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning (e.g. asparagus, field burning, charbroil cooking), and industrial sources (e.g. oil-fueled glass plant, manure-fueled power plants) were acquired as part of the Imperial/Mexicali Valley Cross Border PM10 Transport Study in 1992. Six different source sampling techniques (i.e. hot- and diluted-exhaust sampling, ground-based source sampling, particle sweeping/grab sampling, vacuum sampling, and laboratory resuspension sampling) were applied to acquire filter samples of PM 2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 and 10 microm, respectively). Filter samples were analyzed for mass by gravimetry, elements (Na to U) by X-ray fluorescence, anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(=)) by ion chromatography, ammonium (NH4(+)) by automated colorimetry, soluble sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) by thermal/optical reflectance. Concentration data were acquired for a total of approximately 50 chemical species. Elevated abundances of crustal components (Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) from geological material, carbon (OC, EC) and trace elements (Br, Pb) from vehicle exhausts, carbon (OC, EC) and ions (K(+), Cl(-)) from vegetative burning, ions (SO4(=), NH4(+), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) and elements (Cl, Se) from a manure-fueled power plants, and sulfur and trace elements (Na(+), Pb, Se, Ni, V) from an oil-fueled glass plant were found in the resulting source profiles. Abundances of crustal species (e.g. Al, Si, Ca) in the Imperial/Mexicali Valley geological profiles are more than twice those found in central and southern California. Abundances of lead in motor vehicle exhausts indicate different vehicle fleets in border cities. Emission profiles from field burning and charbroil cooking specific to the border area show that a majority (>60%) of emissions are comprised of carbon, with high organic to total carbon ratios (0.93 to 0.97). Abundances of sulfate and ammonium account for nearly 60% of the manure-fueled power plant's emissions. Elevated levels of metals (Na(+), Pb, Cd, Se) and byproducts of petroleum combustion (S, Ni, V) were found in the oil-fueled glass plant's emissions.
Authors:
J G Watson; J C Chow
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Science of the total environment     Volume:  276     ISSN:  0048-9697     ISO Abbreviation:  Sci. Total Environ.     Publication Date:  2001 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-08-22     Completed Date:  2001-09-06     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330500     Medline TA:  Sci Total Environ     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  33-47     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512, USA. johnw@dri.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Movements
Air Pollution / analysis*
Cookery
Environmental Monitoring*
Fires
Incineration
Mexico
Plants
Power Plants*
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
United States
Vehicle Emissions / analysis*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Vehicle Emissions

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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