Document Detail

Sonographic visualization of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve (baxter nerve): technique and validation using perineural injections in a cadaveric model.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23980227     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Objectives- The primary purpose of this investigation was to document the ability of high-resolution sonography to accurately identify the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve (FBLPN) using sonographically guided perineural injections in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Methods- single experienced operator completed sonographically guided perineural FBLPN injections in 12 unembalmed cadaveric specimens (6 right and 6 left) obtained from 10 donors (5 male and 5 female) aged 47 to 95 years (mean, 71 years) with an average body mass index of 24.2 kg/m(2) (range, 17.2-31.6 kg/m(2)). All injections were completed using 22-gauge, 38-mm stainless steel needles to deliver 1 mL of 50% diluted colored latex adjacent to the FBLPN in the abductor hallucis-quadratus plantae (AH-QP) interval. Six injections were completed using a cart-based ultrasound (US) machine and a 17-5-MHz transducer, and 6 were completed using a portable US machine and a 12-3-MHz transducer. Nerve conspicuity was graded on a 4-point scale (1, poor; 4, excellent). After a minimum of 24 hours, study coinvestigators dissected each specimen to assess injectate placement. Results- All 12 injections accurately placed latex onto the FBLPN within the AH-QP interval, with 11 of 12 (91%) resulting in complete nerve coverage. Proximal latex overflow to the lateral plantar nerve occurred in 82% of cases (10 of 12). The average distance between the plantar fascia and injected latex was 1.2 cm (range, 1.0-1.75 cm). No vascular injury was seen in any specimen. The average nerve conspicuities were 3.7 (range, 3-4) using the cart-based US machine and 1.8 (range, 1-4) using the portable US machine. Conclusions- Sonographic visualization of the FBLPN in the AH-QP interval is feasible and should be considered for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in patients presenting with chronic or atypical heel pain syndromes. Further clinical experience should refine the role of FBLPN sonography and explore the utility of sonographically guided diagnostic and therapeutic FBLPN perineural injections.
James C Presley; Eugene Maida; Wojciech Pawlina; Naveen Murthy; Daniel B Ryssman; Jay Smith
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine     Volume:  32     ISSN:  1550-9613     ISO Abbreviation:  J Ultrasound Med     Publication Date:  2013 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-08-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8211547     Medline TA:  J Ultrasound Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1643-52     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First St SW, 14th Floor, Rochester, MN 55905 USA.
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