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Sonoanatomy of the Thoracic Spine in Adult Volunteers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22354105     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultrasonography of the lumbar spine provides information to facilitate the placement of neuraxial anesthesia. Likewise, thoracic spine ultrasound (US) might conceivably improve the quality and safety of thoracic epidural anesthesia. The objective of this study was to advance our understanding in this area by providing a detailed description of the sonoanatomy of the thoracic spine. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, cohort study in 61 adult volunteers. We performed US scanning of all thoracic interspaces in the right paramedian sagittal oblique (PSO) and transverse median (TM) planes. The images were classified as conclusive and inconclusive, depending on the visibility of ligamentum flavum-dura mater complex (Lf-Dm). The primary outcome was the presence of conclusive images. The secondary outcomes were measurements of various distances between sonoanatomic elements. Data are presented as mean (SD), unless otherwise specified. RESULTS: Overall, the incidence of conclusive images was higher in the PSO than in the TM plane (74.5% [15.4%] versus 37.5% [39.7%], P < 0.001). In the lower thoracic levels, 98% of images were conclusive in both planes, but the number of conclusive images decreased progressively in the upper thoracic levels, more so in the TM than in the PSO plane. The mean depth to Lf-Dm was similar when measured in both PSO (4.0 [0.7] cm) and TM planes (4.1 [0.7] cm). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound imaging of the thoracic spine in the PSO plane provides better views of the Lf-Dm compared with the TM plane. A upper incidence of inconclusive sonograms should be expected in the upper thoracic segments, which can be attributed to the narrower acoustic windows at these levels.
Authors:
Sinziana Avramescu; Cristian Arzola; Uma Tharmaratnam; Ki Jinn Chin; Mrinalini Balki
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-2-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Regional anesthesia and pain medicine     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1532-8651     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-2-22     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9804508     Medline TA:  Reg Anesth Pain Med     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
From the *Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Mount Sinai Hospital, and †Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
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