Document Detail


Somatic and neuroendocrine responses to standard and biologically salient acoustic startle stimuli in monkeys.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20869176     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The startle response, a simple defensive response to a sudden stimulus signaling proximal threat, has been well studied in rodents and humans, but has been rarely examined in monkeys. The first goal of the present studies was to develop a minimally immobilizing startle measurement paradigm and validate its usefulness by testing two core features of the startle response (habituation and graded responsivity) in squirrel monkey subjects. Two different types of startle stimuli were used: standard broad-band noise bursts, and species-specific alarm vocalizations ("yaps") which are elicited in response to threat in both wild and captive animals. The second goal of the present studies was to test whether yaps produce enhanced startle responsivity due to their increased biological salience compared to simple, non-biologically relevant noise bursts. The third goal of the present studies was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to startle stimuli, as little is known about the stress-activating role of startle stimuli in any species. These experiments determined that the whole-body startle response in relatively unrestrained squirrel monkeys habituates across repeated stimulus presentations and is proportional to stimulus intensity. In addition, differential habituation was observed across biologically salient vs. standard acoustic startle stimuli. Responses to "yaps" were larger initially but attenuated more rapidly over trials. Responses to "yaps" were also larger in the early subepochs of the response window but then achieved a lower level than responses to noise bursts in the later subepochs. Finally, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated above baseline after startle stimuli presentation, though monkeys did not exhibit differential HPA axis responses to the two types of startle stimuli. The development of monkey startle methodology may further enhance the utility of this paradigm in translational studies of human stress-related psychiatric disorders.
Authors:
Karen J Parker; Shellie A Hyde; Christine L Buckmaster; Serena M Tanaka; Katharine K Brewster; Alan F Schatzberg; David M Lyons; Steven H Woodward
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychoneuroendocrinology     Volume:  36     ISSN:  1873-3360     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychoneuroendocrinology     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-03-04     Completed Date:  2011-06-22     Revised Date:  2014-09-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7612148     Medline TA:  Psychoneuroendocrinology     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  547-56     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Acoustic Stimulation* / veterinary
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood,  metabolism
Animals
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists
Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
Female
Habituation, Psychophysiologic / drug effects,  physiology*
Hydrocortisone / blood,  metabolism
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects,  metabolism,  physiology
Male
Metyrapone / pharmacology
Neurosecretory Systems / drug effects,  metabolism,  physiology*
Pituitary-Adrenal System / drug effects,  metabolism,  physiology
Saimiri* / blood,  metabolism,  physiology,  psychology
Startle Reaction / drug effects,  physiology*
Validation Studies as Topic
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
F32 MH066537-03/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; MH066537/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; MH077884/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; MH47573/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R01 HD067175/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R01 MH047573/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R01 MH047573-19/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R01 MH077884/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R01 MH077884-05/MH/NIMH NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 9002-60-2/Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8/Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ/Hydrocortisone; ZS9KD92H6V/Metyrapone
Comments/Corrections

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