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Sodium and potassium intake present a J-shaped relationship with arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23084712     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between sodium and potassium intake and vascular structure and function and to ascertain whether said relationship follows the pattern of a J-shaped curve. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a primary care setting. Three hundred fifty-one subjects from the Vasorisk study were included and ranged in age from 30 to 80 years (mean 54.8, SD 11.7); 219 (62.4%) were females. Sodium and potassium intake were evaluated by means of a food frequency questionnaire. Arterial stiffness was assessed according to pulse wave velocity (PWV), ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI, AASI_BPVR), and central and peripheral augmentation index (AIx). Carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography. RESULTS: Age was lower in the quartiles with the highest sodium intake (p < 0.05), and no difference was observed between the sexes. Mean C-IMT, CAIx, AASI and AASI_BPVR were higher in the quartiles with higher sodium intake (p < 0.05 for both AASI and AASI_BPVR). Sodium intake was negatively correlated with C-IMT (r = -0.121, p < 0.05), PWV (r = -0.114, p < 0.05), AASI and AASI_BPVR (r = -0.155, p < 0.01). Potassium intake was positively correlated with Cornell VDP (r = 0.119, p < 0.05), CAIx (r = 0.178, p < 0.01) and PAIx (r = 0.202, p < 0.01). After adjustment, the morphology of the relationship between arterial stiffness parameters and C-IMT with quartiles of sodium intake resembles a J-shaped curve. The relationship between central and peripheral AIx and C-IMT and potassium intake resembles a J-shaped curve. CONCLUSION: The relationship of sodium and potassium intake with vascular structure and function, as evaluated with C-IMT, PWV, AASI and peripheral and central AIx, resembles a J-shaped curve, which is similar to what has been proposed in the case of cardiovascular morbimortality.
Luis García-Ortiz; José I Recio-Rodríguez; Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez; María C Patino-Alonso; Cristina Agudo-Conde; Carmela Rodríguez-Martín; Carmen Castaño-Sánchez; Isabelle Runkle; Manuel A Gómez-Marcos
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-5
Journal Detail:
Title:  Atherosclerosis     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-1484     ISO Abbreviation:  Atherosclerosis     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-22     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0242543     Medline TA:  Atherosclerosis     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Primary care Research unit, La Alamedilla, Sacyl. IBSAL, REDIAPP, Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:
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