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Sodium Intake Is Associated with Carotid Artery Structure Alterations and Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Upregulation in Hypertensive Adults.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21430243     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The mechanisms by which dietary sodium modulates cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. This study investigated whether sodium intake is related to carotid structure and hemodynamics and to plasma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in hypertensive adults. One hundred thirty-four participants were cross-sectionally evaluated by clinical history, anthropometry, carotid ultrasound, and analysis of hemodynamic, inflammatory, and metabolic variables. Daily sodium intake (DSI) was estimated by 24-h recall, discretionary sodium, and a FFQ. In 42 patients, plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also analyzed. The mean DSI was 5.52 ± 0.29 g/d. Univariate analysis showed that DSI correlated with common carotid artery systolic and diastolic diameter (r = 0.36 and 0.34; both P < 0.001), peak and mean circumferential tension (r = 0.44 and 0.39; both P < 0.001), Young's Elastic Modulus (r = 0.40; P < 0.001), intima-media thickness (r = 0.19; P < 0.05), and internal carotid artery resistive index (r = 0.20; P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that only artery diameter, circumferential wall tension, and Young's Elastic Modulus were independently associated with DSI. Conversely, plasma MMP-9 activity was associated with DSI (r = 0.53; P < 0.001) as well as with common carotid systolic diameter (r = 0.33; P < 0.05) and Young's Elastic Modulus (r = 0.38; P < 0.01). In conclusion, sodium intake is associated with carotid alterations in hypertensive adults independently of systemic hemodynamic variables. The present findings also suggest that increased MMP-9 activity might play a role in sodium-induced vascular remodeling.
Authors:
Maria C S Ferreira-Sae; José A A Cipolli; Marília E Cornélio; José R Matos-Souza; Maruska N Fernandes; Roberto Schreiber; Felipe O Costa; Kleber G Franchini; Roberta C Rodrigues; Maria C Gallani; Wilson Nadruz
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-3-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nutrition     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1541-6100     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-3-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404243     Medline TA:  J Nutr     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Internal Medicine, and.
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