Document Detail

Socioeconomic inequality in blood pressure and its determinants: cross-sectional data from Trinidad and Tobago.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14688812     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
We evaluated income- and education-related inequalities in blood pressure, hypertension and hypertension treatment in the general population of Trinidad and Tobago. The design included survey of 300 households in north central Trinidad, including 631 adults in 2001. Measurements of blood pressure, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and educational attainment, household income and alcohol intake by questionnaire. The slope index of inequality (SII) was used to estimate the difference in blood pressure between those with highest, as compared to lowest, socioeconomic status. Complete measurements and questionnaires were obtained for 461 (73%) including 202 men and 259 women. In women, after adjusting for age and ethnicity, the SII for systolic blood pressure by income was -12.6, 95% confidence interval -22.6 to -2.6 mmHg (P=0.013); and -10.8 (-21.4 to -0.2) mmHg (P=0.045) by educational attainment. After additionally adjusting for body mass index, waist-hip circumference ratio and self-reported diabetes, the SII for income was -7.3 (-16.5 to 1.9) mmHg (P=0.120) and for educational attainment was -3.0 (-13.0 to 6.9) mmHg (P=0.551). In men, after adjusting for age and ethnicity, the SII for systolic blood pressure by income was -4.3 (-15.4 to 6.8) mmHg (P=0.447) and for education -8.1 (-19.0 to 2.8) (P=0.145). There is a negative association of systolic blood pressure with increasing income or education in women. This is associated with body mass index, abdominal obesity and diabetes. There is no consistent association between education or income and blood pressure in men.
M C Gulliford; D Mahabir; B Rocke
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of human hypertension     Volume:  18     ISSN:  0950-9240     ISO Abbreviation:  J Hum Hypertens     Publication Date:  2004 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-12-22     Completed Date:  2004-11-03     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8811625     Medline TA:  J Hum Hypertens     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  61-70     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Journal of Human Hypertension (2004) 18, 61-70. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001638
Department of Public Health Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Aged, 80 and over
Blood Pressure
Body Mass Index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status*
Health Surveys
Hypertension / economics,  epidemiology*,  therapy
Middle Aged
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Trinidad and Tobago / epidemiology

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