Document Detail

Snorkelling-related deaths in Australia, 1994-2006.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22900874     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and causes of snorkelling-related deaths in Australia.
DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of snorkelling-related deaths recorded in Australia from 1994 to 2006 inclusive, based on information from the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific database, the National Coroners Information System, coronial files from all states and territories, and annual national drowning reports.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and attributed causes of snorkelling-related deaths.
RESULTS: We identified 140 snorkelling-related deaths. Forensic details were available for 130 of these. Four principal cause-of-death categories were identified: deaths from cardiac or suspected cardiac causes (60), deaths from surface drowning (largely in inexperienced snorkellers) (33), deaths from drowning after prolonged breath-hold diving (largely in experienced divers) (19), and deaths from trauma (10). Eight people died of other causes.
CONCLUSIONS: In the context of the large population sampled, snorkelling-related deaths are rare. Preventive measures for such deaths could include pre-dive medical assessments for people with a history of cardiac or respiratory disease or with a family history of sudden unexpected death; improved training in how to use snorkelling equipment; better matching of skills to health, fitness and water conditions; better supervision and quality training of supervisors in rescue and resuscitation techniques; and avoidance of hyperventilation before breath-hold diving.
John M Lippmann; John H Pearn
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Medical journal of Australia     Volume:  197     ISSN:  1326-5377     ISO Abbreviation:  Med. J. Aust.     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-08-20     Completed Date:  2012-10-22     Revised Date:  2014-07-31    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0400714     Medline TA:  Med J Aust     Country:  Australia    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  230-2     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Australia / epidemiology
Cause of Death*
Diving / injuries,  statistics & numerical data
Drowning / mortality
Heart Diseases / mortality
Retrospective Studies
Swimming* / injuries,  statistics & numerical data
Wounds and Injuries / etiology,  mortality

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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