Document Detail

Smoking, exercise, and physical fitness.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1438118     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Research on smoking and physical activity provides strong evidence of smoking's negative impact and physical activity's positive impact on long-term health. However, evidence regarding the association between smoking and exercise activity and the independent effects of these factors on fitness is lacking. METHODS: The associations among exercise activity, smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a lifestyle survey. Physical fitness was assessed using scores on the Navy's Physical Readiness Test. Analyses of variance were conducted to examine the relationships among smoking status, exercise activity, and PRT performance. Multiple regression procedures were used to examine the relationship between smoking and physical fitness after statistically controlling for the effects of exercise. RESULTS: Smoking was associated with lower exercise levels and lower physical endurance--both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for exercise activity, smoking remained significantly associated with lower physical endurance but was not related to overall body strength (lean body mass) or percentage body fat. CONCLUSION: Smoking is a detriment to physical fitness even among relatively young, fit individuals. Study findings suggest that smokers will have lower physical endurance than nonsmokers, even after differences in the average exercise levels of smokers and nonsmokers are taken into account. Cigarette smokers should be given strong encouragement to stop smoking as part of any effort to improve physical fitness.
T L Conway; T A Cronan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Preventive medicine     Volume:  21     ISSN:  0091-7435     ISO Abbreviation:  Prev Med     Publication Date:  1992 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1992-12-04     Completed Date:  1992-12-04     Revised Date:  2010-03-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0322116     Medline TA:  Prev Med     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  723-34     Citation Subset:  IM    
Health Sciences and Epidemiology Department, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California 92186-5122.
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MeSH Terms
Body Composition
Health Surveys
Middle Aged
Military Personnel / statistics & numerical data*
Physical Fitness*
Regression Analysis
Smoking / adverse effects*,  epidemiology
United States / epidemiology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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