Document Detail

Smoking as a risk factor for oral candidiasis in HIV-infected adults.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23206208     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine if smoking is an independent predictor of oral candidiasis (OC) among HIV-1 infected persons.
METHODS: The cross-sectional part of this study evaluated 631 adult dentate HIV-1 seropositive persons examined for OC from 1995-2000 at the University of North Carolina Hospitals in Chapel Hill, NC. In the second part, from the above sample, a total of 283 individuals who were free of HIV-associated oral diseases at baseline were followed up for 2 years to assess incident OC events. Data collected from medical record review, interview questionnaires, and clinical examinations were analyzed using chi-squared tests and t-tests. Logistic regression models were developed for prevalent OC employing the likelihood ratio test, whereas Poisson regression models were developed for assessing cumulative incidence of OC. These models included a variety of independent variables to adjust for confounding.
RESULTS: Thirteen percent of participants had OC only; 4.6% had OC with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia; and 69.7% had neither. Smoking was associated with OC in all models [prevalent OC - current smokers: logistic regression - Odd ratio (95% CI) = 2.5 (1.3, 4.8); Incident OC - current smokers: Poisson regression (main effects model) - Incidence rate ratio (95% CI) = 1.9 (1.1, 3.8)]. Other Poisson regression models suggested evidence for effect modification between CD4 cell count and incident OC by smoking.
CONCLUSION: Smoking is an independent risk factor for the development of OC in HIV-1 infected persons, and the risk of OC is modified by CD4 cell count which measures strength of the immune system.
Amit Chattopadhyay; Lauren L Patton
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2012-12-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology     Volume:  42     ISSN:  1600-0714     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Oral Pathol. Med.     Publication Date:  2013 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-04-04     Completed Date:  2013-09-19     Revised Date:  2014-04-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8911934     Medline TA:  J Oral Pathol Med     Country:  Denmark    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  302-8     Citation Subset:  D; IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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MeSH Terms
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology*
Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Candidiasis, Oral / etiology*
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Follow-Up Studies
HIV Infections / complications*,  immunology
HIV Seropositivity / complications,  immunology
Interviews as Topic
Leukoplakia, Hairy / etiology
Longitudinal Studies
Physical Examination
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
Smoking / adverse effects*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0/Antifungal Agents
Comment In:
J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2013 Dec;13(4):180-2   [PMID:  24237746 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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