Document Detail

Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18045355     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Skin lightening preparations are widely used in dermatology by persons of all Fitzpatrick skin types. Fitzpatrick skin types I-III require local pigment lightening for the treatment of hormonally induced melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation caused by acne and trauma. Fitzpatrick skin types IV and darker have an even greater need for skin lightening for social reasons, as well as pigmentary changes that occur around the eyes, in the intertriginous areas, following dermatitis, or with acne and trauma. The gold standard dermatologic agent for skin lightening was hydroquinone, until regulatory agencies in Japan, Europe, and most recently in the United States questioned the safety of this substance. This has encouraged research into alternative agents to inhibit skin pigmentation such as retinoids, mequinol, azelaic acid, arbutin, kojic acid, aleosin, licorice extract, ascorbic acid, soy proteins, and N-acetyl glucosamine. The efficacy and safety of each of these ingredients is examined as possible topical alternatives to hydroquinone.
Zoe Diana Draelos
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Dermatologic therapy     Volume:  20     ISSN:  1529-8019     ISO Abbreviation:  Dermatol Ther     Publication Date:    2007 Sep-Oct
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-11-29     Completed Date:  2008-02-05     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9700070     Medline TA:  Dermatol Ther     Country:  Denmark    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  308-13     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Administration, Topical
Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Hydroquinones / adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Hyperpigmentation / drug therapy*,  etiology,  physiopathology
Melanosis / drug therapy,  etiology,  physiopathology
Patient Satisfaction
Retinoids / adverse effects,  therapeutic use
Risk Assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Skin Care / methods
Treatment Outcome
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dermatologic Agents; 0/Hydroquinones; 0/Retinoids; 123-31-9/hydroquinone

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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