Document Detail

Size at birth and early childhood growth in relation to maternal smoking, parity and infant breast-feeding: longitudinal birth cohort study and analysis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12438662     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
There is remarkably wide variation in rates of infancy growth, however, its regulation is not well understood. We examined the relationship between maternal smoking, parity, and breast- or bottle-feeding to size at birth and childhood growth between 0 and 5 y in a large representative birth cohort. A total of 1,335 normal infants had weight, length/height, and head circumference measured at birth and on up to 10 occasions to 5 y old. Multilevel modeling (MLwiN) was used to analyze longitudinal growth data. Infants of maternal smokers were symmetrically small at birth (p < 0.0005) compared with infants of nonsmokers, however, showed complete catch-up growth over the first 12 mo. In contrast, infants of primiparous pregnancies were thin at birth (p < 0.0005), showed dramatic catch-up growth, and were heavier and taller than infants of nonprimiparous pregnancies from 12 mo onwards. Breast-fed infants were similar in size at birth than bottle-fed infants, but grew more slowly during infancy. Among infants who showed catch-up growth, males caught up more rapidly than females (p = 0.002). In conclusion, early postnatal growth rates are strongly influenced by a drive to compensate for antenatal restraint or enhancement of fetal growth by maternal-uterine factors. The mechanisms that signal catch-up or catch-down growth are unknown but may involve programming of appetite. The importance of nutrition on early childhood growth is emphasized by the marked difference in growth rates between breast- and bottle-fed infants. The sequence of fetal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may predispose to obesity risk in this contemporary population.
Ken K L Ong; Michael A Preece; Pauline M Emmett; Marion L Ahmed; David B Dunger;
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatric research     Volume:  52     ISSN:  0031-3998     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatr. Res.     Publication Date:  2002 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-11-19     Completed Date:  2003-06-09     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0100714     Medline TA:  Pediatr Res     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  863-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Birth Weight*
Body Height
Body Weight
Breast Feeding
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Great Britain
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Maternal-Fetal Exchange*
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Sex Characteristics
Smoking / adverse effects*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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