Document Detail

Sinus node revisited.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21102315     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sinus node disease (SND) is a common clinical condition and is the most common indication for permanent pacemaker implantation. This review aims to revisit the complex sinus node anatomy, the evolving understanding of its pacemaking mechanisms, the atrial myopathy in SND and sinus node remodeling.
RECENT FINDINGS: Recent high-density noncontact mapping of the human sinus node showed multiple origins of sinus activation and exit sites with preferential pathways of conduction. Perhaps, a newly described discrete paranodal area containing a molecular mixture of nodal and atrial cells may account for this long recognized discrepancy between the anatomical and functional sinus node. The funny current (If) driven 'membrane clock' is not solely responsible for sinus node automaticity, following recent recognition of the importance of the 'calcium clock'. Several molecular links to sinus node remodeling have recently been identified: loss of connexin-43 expression and down-regulation of Ica,L in aging; reduced If and down-regulation of If encoding HCN4 and HCN2 subunits in heart failure; and calcium clock malfunction with down-regulated HCN4, HCN2 and minK in atrial fibrillation.
SUMMARY: Ongoing research with improved technology and techniques continues to unravel new understandings and challenges to the century old discovery of the anatomical sinus node.
Dennis H Lau; Kurt C Roberts-Thomson; Prashanthan Sanders
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current opinion in cardiology     Volume:  26     ISSN:  1531-7080     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Opin. Cardiol.     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-03-01     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8608087     Medline TA:  Curr Opin Cardiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  55-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Cardiology, Royal Adelaide Hospital and the Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
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