Document Detail

Significance of circulating toxin and antitoxin in unimmunized tetanus cases of neonates and infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22464049     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The level of circulating tetanus toxin, antitoxin and their individual influence on the outcome of tetanus cases were determined in unimmunized 125 neonatal and 39 infant cases of tetanus. PHA (passive haemagglutination) test showed 40% positive cases for toxin while its absence in the remaining cases indicated of either toxin fixation to the central nervous system (CNS) or it got neutralized by antitoxin. TN (toxin neutralization) and PHA test carried out in 46 sera samples revealed a strong positive correlation (r = 0.9) showing that 35/46 (76%) and 38/46 (82.6%) samples were positive for antitoxin, respectively. 25.4% of the neonate and infant cases and 34% of the control group had a protective serum tetanus antitoxin level. 42.5% of the paired sera from unimmunized mothers and their neonates showing nonprotective antitoxin levels suggested that a high level of antitoxin is needed for transplacental transfer, although transfer may not play a decisive role in the resistance against the disease. The presence of toxin or antitoxin in the clinical cases did not affect the outcome of the disease, although in neonates, presence of toxin was found to be a bad prognostic sign. This study explicitly advocates for the need to improve the vaccination coverage strategy.
S S Grover; S S Negi; S Singh; K Ray
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-3-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1095-8320     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-4-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9004494     Medline TA:  Biologicals     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Centre for Disease Control, (NCDC), 22-Sham Nath Marg, Delhi 54, India.
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