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Significance of Reflux of Contrast Medium Into the Inferior Vena Cava on Computerized Tomographic Pulmonary Angiogram.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22074991     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Reflux of contrast medium into the inferior vena cava (IVC) is often detected on computerized tomographic pulmonary angiogram. The potential clinical implications and associated diagnoses of this finding have not been established. We investigated the prevalence and significance of reflux of contrast medium into the IVC in a large cohort of patients evaluated for possible pulmonary embolism (PE) by computerized tomographic pulmonary angiography. We retrospectively reviewed 1,065 consecutive computerized tomographic pulmonary angiographic examinations performed from January 1, 2007 through January 7, 2008 for the presence of reflux. Degree of reflux into the IVC and hepatic veins was graded from 1 (none) to 6 (severe). Patients' charts were reviewed for diagnoses during the index hospitalization and for background diseases. These clinical data were correlated with the reflux grade. The final study included 967 computerized tomographic pulmonary angiographic scans of 367 men and 600 women (mean age 62 ± 20 years, range 17 to 103). Almost 1/2 (480, 49.6%) had grade 1, 310 (32.1%) had grades 2 to 3, and 177 (18.3%) had grades 4 to 6. Multivariate logistic regression found that pulmonary hypertension, history of congestive heart failure, chronic atrial fibrillation, and acute PE were associated with extensive reflux (grades 4 to 6) with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 5.4 (3.0 to 9.9, p <0.001), 3.7 (2.3 to 6.1, p <0.001), 2.3 (1.0 to 5.3, p = 0.044), and 1.8 (1.2 to 2.9, p = 0.011), respectively. Interobserver agreement between the 2 readers for reflux grading was good (kappa = 0.77). In conclusion, extensive reflux of contrast medium into the IVC detected on computerized tomographic pulmonary angiogram may serve as a pathophysiologic marker of right heart dysfunction, specifically pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic atrial fibrillation, or PE.
Galit Aviram; Dotan Cohen; Arie Steinvil; Hezzy Shmueli; Gad Keren; Shmuel Banai; Shlomo Berliner; Ori Rogowski
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-11-8
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of cardiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-1913     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0207277     Medline TA:  Am J Cardiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
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