Document Detail

Side effects of cocaine abuse: multiorgan toxicity and pathological consequences.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22934772     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Cocaine is a powerful stimulant the sympathetic nervous system by inhibiting catecholamine reuptake, stimulating central sympathetic outflow, and increasing the sensitivity of adrenergic nerve endings to norepinephrine (NE). Numerous studies have established that cocaine has the ability to cause irreversible structural damage to the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and others non cardiac complications. Numerous mechanisms have been postulated to explain how cocaine contributes to these conditions. Some effects are determined by the overstimulation of the adrenergic system. Most of the direct toxic effects are mediated by oxidative stress and by mitochondrial dysfunction produced during the metabolism of noradrenaline or during the metabolism of norcocaina, as in cocaine-induced hepathotoxicity. Among these, cocaine may lead to myocardial infarction by causing coronary artery vasoconstriction and accelerated atherosclerosis, and by initiating thrombus formation. Cocaine has also been shown to block K+ channels, increase L-type Ca2+ channel current, and inhibit Na+ influx during depolarization, all possible causes for arrhythmia. Additionally, cocaine use has been associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy, which can lead to heart failure if drug use is continued. A variety of respiratory problems temporally associated with crack inhalation have been reported. Cocaine may cause changes in the respiratory tract as a result of its pharmacologic effects exerted either locally or systemically, its method of administration (smoking, sniffing, injecting), or its alteration of central nervous system neuroregulation of pulmonary function. Renal failure resulting from cocaine abuse has been also well documented. A lot of studies demonstrated a high incidence of congenital cardiovascular and brain malformations in offspring born to mothers with a history of cocaine abuse.
Irene Riezzo; Carmela Fiore; Dania De Carlo; Natascha Pascale; Margherita Neri; Emanuela Turillazzi; Vittorio Fineschi
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-8-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current medicinal chemistry     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1875-533X     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Med. Chem.     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-8-31     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9440157     Medline TA:  Curr Med Chem     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Ospedale C. D'Avanzo, Viale degli Aviatori 1, 71100, Foggia.
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