Document Detail

Severity of prenatal cocaine exposure and child language functioning through age seven years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15002943     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The current study estimates the longitudinal effects of severity of prenatal cocaine exposure on language functioning in an urban sample of full-term African-American children (200 cocaine-exposed, 176 noncocaine-exposed) through age 7 years. The Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study sample was enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of prenatal drug exposure status through maternal interview and toxicology assays of maternal and infant urine and infant meconium. Language functioning was measured at ages 3 and 5 years using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals--Preschool (CELF-P) and at age 7 years using the Core Language Domain of the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to examine two components of language functioning, a more stable aptitude for language performance and a time-varying trajectory of language development, across the three time points and their relationship to varying levels of prenatal cocaine exposure. Severity of prenatal cocaine exposure was characterized using a latent construct combining maternal self-report of cocaine use during pregnancy by trimesters and maternal and infant bioassays, allowing all available information to be taken into account. The association between severity of exposure and language functioning was examined within a model including factors for fetal growth, gestational age, and IQ as intercorrelated response variables and child's age, gender, and prenatal alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana exposure as covariates. Results indicated that greater severity of prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with greater deficits within the more stable aptitude for language performance (D = -0.071, 95% CI = -0.133, -0.009; p = 0.026). There was no relationship between severity of prenatal cocaine exposure and the time-varying trajectory of language development. The observed cocaine-associated deficit was independent of multiple alternative suspected sources of variation in language performance, including other potential responses to prenatal cocaine exposure, such as child's intellectual functioning, and other birth and postnatal influences, including language stimulation in the home environment.
Emmalee S Bandstra; April L Vogel; Connie E Morrow; Lihua Xue; James C Anthony
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Substance use & misuse     Volume:  39     ISSN:  1082-6084     ISO Abbreviation:  Subst Use Misuse     Publication Date:  2004 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-03-08     Completed Date:  2004-05-27     Revised Date:  2014-09-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9602153     Medline TA:  Subst Use Misuse     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  25-59     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
African Americans*
Child, Preschool
Cocaine / poisoning*
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / poisoning*
Infant, Newborn
Language Development*
Language Disorders / etiology*
Longitudinal Studies
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
Urban Population
Grant Support
M01 RR005280-08/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; MO1-RR 05280/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R01 DA 06556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R01 DA006556-12/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; T32 DA 07292/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; T32 DA007292/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; T32 DA007292-16/DA/NIDA NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; I5Y540LHVR/Cocaine

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