Document Detail

Serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19368238     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. Dietary requirements for giraffes are not known; invasive studies used with domestic animals cannot be performed on zoo animals. Though domestic animal standards are often used to evaluate nutritional health of exotic animals, they may not be the most appropriate standards to use. Serum samples from 20 zoo giraffes at 10 zoological institutions in the United States were compared to previously collected samples from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Thirteen of the zoo animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection, and seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. Dietary information was also collected on each zoo giraffe; most zoo giraffe diets consisted of alfalfa-based pellets (acid detergent fiber-16), alfalfa hay, and browse in varying quantities. Differences between zoo and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed with the use of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) for mean separation. Of the 84 parameters measured, 54 (60%) were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between zoo and free-ranging giraffes. Nine (11%) items were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between adult and subadult animals. Only one parameter, sodium concentration, was found to be significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between genders. Further investigation in zoo giraffe diets is needed to address the differences seen in this study and the potentially related health problems.
Debra A Schmidt; Elizabeth A Koutsos; Mark R Ellersieck; Mark E Griffin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians     Volume:  40     ISSN:  1042-7260     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Zoo Wildl. Med.     Publication Date:  2009 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-04-16     Completed Date:  2009-05-11     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8915208     Medline TA:  J Zoo Wildl Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  29-38     Citation Subset:  IM    
Lincoln Park Zoo, 2001 North Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / blood
Animal Feed / analysis*,  standards
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*
Animals, Wild / blood
Animals, Zoo / blood
Artiodactyla / blood*
Fatty Acids / blood
Lipoproteins / blood
Minerals / blood
Nutritional Requirements
Nutritional Status*
Vitamin A / blood
Vitamin E / blood
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Fatty Acids; 0/Lipoproteins; 0/Minerals; 11103-57-4/Vitamin A; 1406-18-4/Vitamin E

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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