Document Detail

Serial study of clinical and CT changes in tuberculous meningitis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12687301     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Clinical and radiological changes in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) have been reported but there is paucity of comprehensive serial clinicoradiological follow-up. In this prospective hospital based study, we investigated serial changes in the clinical and radiological findings and their relationships over 6 months in 31 consecutive patients with TBM, diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological and spinal fluid criteria. We graded the severity of the TBM as I-III. Detailed clinical examination, contrast-enhanced CT and activities of daily living (ADL) assessments were made on admission, and 3 and 6 months after therapy. Further CT was carried out as required. Patients received four-drug antituberculous therapy (RHZE) and underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt if necessary. Outcome was defined as poor, partial or complete recovery using the Barthel index score at 6 months. The age of the patients was 6-80 years, mean 35.2 years; four were children and 13 female. Meningitis was stage I in 5, stage II in six and stage III in 20 patients. Focal weakness was present in nine, papilloedema in six and ophthalmoplegia in ten. There were ten patients who deteriorated within first 6 weeks of therapy. Mean Glasgow coma score (GCS) deteriorated from 12.5 to 11.4; the grade of meningitis increased by two stages in one patient, one stage in another, and motor deficits appeared in four and optic atrophy in four; four patients required shunt surgery. By 3 months most patients were stable. At 6 months 17 patients had complete, four partial and nine poor recovery. Initial CT was abnormal in 28 patients, revealing hydrocephalus and exudates in 15 each, infarcts in ten and tuberculomas in 13. It was repeated in ten patients who deteriorated, showing new abnormalities such as hydrocephalus in two, infarcts in four, exudates in four and granulomas in two, with worsening of the previous findings. CT at 3 and 6 months was still abnormal in most patients. At 6 months hydrocephalus had disappeared in four, as had tuberculomas in seven and exudates in six, but infarcts did not change. Initial deterioration was related to weakness on admission and the GCS. Cognitive impairment significantly correlated with exudates and tuberculomas and motor deficits with infarcts. Thus, a third of patients with TBM may deteriorate within 6 weeks of starting treatment and CT can be helpful in managing them. Worsening on treatment was related to weakness and GCS on admission. In most patients CT remained abnormal at 6 months despite clinical recovery.
P Ranjan; J Kalita; U K Misra
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2003-04-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neuroradiology     Volume:  45     ISSN:  0028-3940     ISO Abbreviation:  Neuroradiology     Publication Date:  2003 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-05-13     Completed Date:  2003-07-18     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1302751     Medline TA:  Neuroradiology     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  277-82     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebarely Road, 226014 Lucknow, India.
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MeSH Terms
Activities of Daily Living
Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use
Brain / radiography*
Drug Therapy, Combination
Follow-Up Studies
Glasgow Coma Scale
Prospective Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Time Factors
Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
Tuberculosis, Meningeal / complications,  diagnosis,  radiography*,  therapy
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antitubercular Agents

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