Document Detail

Semicarbazide formation in flour and bread.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18303820     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Azodicarbonamide, an approved food additive, is commonly used as a flour additive and dough conditioner in the United States and Canada. A number of researchers have clearly established a link between the use of azodicarbonamide and semicarbazide contamination in commercial bread products. However, all of these studies have primarily focused on the final baked product and have not extensively investigated the processing and conditions that affect the final semicarbazide levels. In this study, a previously developed method for measuring free semicarbazide in bread was applied to dough samples during the mixing and kneading process. Additionally, flour and bread samples were spiked with biurea or azodicarbonamide to help elucidate semicarbazide formation pathways. The results showed that semicarbazide was not formed as a byproduct of azodicarbonamide decomposition to biurea, which occurs upon the addition of water. Indeed, semicarbazide was not detected after room temperature or elevated temperature dough maturation, but only after baking. It was concluded that although azodicarbonamide is the initial starting material, semicarbazide formation in bread occurs through a stable intermediate, biurea.
Gregory O Noonan; Timothy H Begley; Gregory W Diachenko
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2008-02-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry     Volume:  56     ISSN:  0021-8561     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Agric. Food Chem.     Publication Date:  2008 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-03-19     Completed Date:  2008-06-11     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374755     Medline TA:  J Agric Food Chem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2064-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Azo Compounds / chemistry
Biureas / chemistry
Bread / analysis*
Flour / analysis*
Food Additives / chemistry
Food Contamination / analysis
Food Handling
Hot Temperature
Semicarbazides / analysis,  chemical synthesis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Azo Compounds; 0/Biureas; 0/Food Additives; 0/Semicarbazides; 123-77-3/1,1-azobisformamide

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Determination of water content in olive oil by 31P NMR spectroscopy.
Next Document:  Antioxidant properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.): role of colorless phytochemicals from t...