Document Detail

Selecting an appropriate biomonitoring strategy to evaluate dermal exposure to opioid narcotic analgesics in pharmaceutical production workers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19914914     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: In a follow-up study of previous research, in which exposure pathways for opioid narcotic analgesics were identified in pharmaceutical workers involved in drug synthesis, the current research focused on the selection of an appropriate biomonitoring strategy. METHODS: Six opioid narcotic production workers were intensively monitored during a (1 week) fentanyl production campaign. A systematic sampling scheme was followed that provided information about hand contamination and biomarker levels at multiple time points. RESULTS: Linear mixed-effects models, incorporating half-shift and end-of-shift hand contamination levels, showed a positive and significant correlation with fentanyl urinary excretion occurring at many of the 4 h time lags investigated (4-28 h). Optimum model characteristics, including both minimal between- and within-worker variability, were obtained at lag times of 24 h and 20 h, respectively, advocating a pre-shift urine sampling strategy on the following day. In addition, for these lag times the portion of the variability explained by the model was maximal. Furthermore, using a distributed lag model, it was demonstrated that urinary fentanyl levels were positively correlated with hand contamination levels measured at the preceding four 8 h time lags (8-32 h), although statistical significance was only shown for a lag time of 24 h. CONCLUSION: Fentanyl levels in pre-shift urine samples reflect dermal exposure to the compound during the previous day. Thus, in the specific working environment investigated, a biological monitoring protocol evaluating pre-shift urinary fentanyl levels could provide an adequate risk estimate in individual workers.
N F J Van Nimmen; K L C Poels; M J Severi; L Godderis; H A F Veulemans
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Evaluation Studies; Journal Article     Date:  2009-11-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  Occupational and environmental medicine     Volume:  67     ISSN:  1470-7926     ISO Abbreviation:  Occup Environ Med     Publication Date:  2010 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-06-28     Completed Date:  2010-09-13     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9422759     Medline TA:  Occup Environ Med     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  464-70     Citation Subset:  IM    
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Occupational, Environmental and Insurance Medicine, Kapucijnenvoer 35/5, Leuven, Belgium.
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MeSH Terms
Air Pollutants, Occupational / toxicity*,  urine
Analgesics, Opioid / toxicity*,  urine
Biological Markers / urine
Drug Industry*
Environmental Monitoring / methods
Fentanyl / toxicity*,  urine
Follow-Up Studies
Middle Aged
Narcotics / toxicity*,  urine
Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*,  analysis
Skin Absorption
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Analgesics, Opioid; 0/Biological Markers; 0/Narcotics; 437-38-7/Fentanyl

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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