Document Detail

Sedation-associated hiccups in adults undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22826626     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIM: To investigate whether the incidence of hiccups in patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or same-day bidirectional endoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy; BDE) with sedation is different from those without sedation in terms of quantity, duration and typical onset time.
METHODS: Consecutive patients scheduled for elective EGD or same-day BDE at the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit or the health examination center were allocated to two groups: EGD without sedation (Group A) and BDE with sedation (Group B). The use of sedation was based on the patients' request. Anesthesiologists participated in this study by administrating sedative drugs as usual. A single experienced gastroenterologist performed both the EGD and the colonoscopic examinations for all the patients. The incidence, duration and onset time of hiccups were measured in both groups. In addition, the association between clinical variables and hiccups were analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 435 patients were enrolled in the study. The incidences of hiccups in the patients with and without sedation were significantly different (20.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The use of sedation for patients undergoing endoscopy was still significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups (adjusted odds ratio: 8.79, P < 0.001) after adjustment. The incidence of hiccups in males under sedation was high (67.4%). The sedated patients who received 2 mg midazolam developed hiccups more frequently compared to those receiving 1 mg midazolam (P = 0.0028). The patients with the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were prone to develop hiccups (P = 0.018).
CONCLUSION: Male patients undergoing EGD or BDE with sedation are significantly more likely to suffer from hiccups compared to those without sedation. Midazolam was significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups. Furthermore, patients with GERD are prone to develop hiccups.
Chien Cheng Liu; Cheng Yuan Lu; Chih Fang Changchien; Ping Hsin Liu; Daw Shyong Perng
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  World journal of gastroenterology : WJG     Volume:  18     ISSN:  2219-2840     ISO Abbreviation:  World J. Gastroenterol.     Publication Date:  2012 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-07-24     Completed Date:  2012-12-03     Revised Date:  2014-05-20    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100883448     Medline TA:  World J Gastroenterol     Country:  China    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  3595-601     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Chi-Square Distribution
Colonoscopy* / adverse effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal* / adverse effects
Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications,  diagnosis*,  epidemiology,  pathology
Hiccup / chemically induced*,  epidemiology
Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage,  adverse effects*
Logistic Models
Midazolam / administration & dosage,  adverse effects*
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Risk Assessment
Risk Factors
Sex Factors
Taiwan / epidemiology
Time Factors
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Hypnotics and Sedatives; R60L0SM5BC/Midazolam

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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