|Sedation-associated hiccups in adults undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy.|
|PMID: 22826626 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE|
|AIM: To investigate whether the incidence of hiccups in patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or same-day bidirectional endoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy; BDE) with sedation is different from those without sedation in terms of quantity, duration and typical onset time.
METHODS: Consecutive patients scheduled for elective EGD or same-day BDE at the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit or the health examination center were allocated to two groups: EGD without sedation (Group A) and BDE with sedation (Group B). The use of sedation was based on the patients' request. Anesthesiologists participated in this study by administrating sedative drugs as usual. A single experienced gastroenterologist performed both the EGD and the colonoscopic examinations for all the patients. The incidence, duration and onset time of hiccups were measured in both groups. In addition, the association between clinical variables and hiccups were analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 435 patients were enrolled in the study. The incidences of hiccups in the patients with and without sedation were significantly different (20.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The use of sedation for patients undergoing endoscopy was still significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups (adjusted odds ratio: 8.79, P < 0.001) after adjustment. The incidence of hiccups in males under sedation was high (67.4%). The sedated patients who received 2 mg midazolam developed hiccups more frequently compared to those receiving 1 mg midazolam (P = 0.0028). The patients with the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were prone to develop hiccups (P = 0.018).
CONCLUSION: Male patients undergoing EGD or BDE with sedation are significantly more likely to suffer from hiccups compared to those without sedation. Midazolam was significantly associated with an increased risk of hiccups. Furthermore, patients with GERD are prone to develop hiccups.
|Chien Cheng Liu; Cheng Yuan Lu; Chih Fang Changchien; Ping Hsin Liu; Daw Shyong Perng|
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|Type: Journal Article|
|Title: World journal of gastroenterology : WJG Volume: 18 ISSN: 2219-2840 ISO Abbreviation: World J. Gastroenterol. Publication Date: 2012 Jul|
|Created Date: 2012-07-24 Completed Date: 2012-12-03 Revised Date: 2014-05-20|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 100883448 Medline TA: World J Gastroenterol Country: China|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 3595-601 Citation Subset: IM|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Colonoscopy* / adverse effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal* / adverse effects
Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications, diagnosis*, epidemiology, pathology
Hiccup / chemically induced*, epidemiology
Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage, adverse effects*
Midazolam / administration & dosage, adverse effects*
Taiwan / epidemiology
|0/Hypnotics and Sedatives; R60L0SM5BC/Midazolam|
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
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