Document Detail


Seasonal and spatial variations of ammonia emissions from an open-lot dairy operation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18376640     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
There is a need for a robust and accurate technique to measure ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) to obtain emission inventories and to develop abatement strategies. Two consecutive seasonal studies were conducted to measure NH3 emissions from an open-lot dairy in central Texas in July and December of 2005. Data including NH3 concentrations were collected and NH3 emission fluxes (EFls), emission rates (ERs), and emission factors (EFs) were calculated for the open-lot dairy. A protocol using flux chambers (FCs) was used to determine these NH3 emissions from the open-lot dairy. NH3 concentration measurements were made using chemiluminescence-based analyzers. The ground-level area sources (GLAS) including open lots (cows on earthen corrals), separated solids, primary and secondary lagoons, and milking parlors were sampled to estimate NH3 emissions. The seasonal NH3 EFs were 11.6 +/- 7.1 kg-NH3 yr(-1)head(-1) for the summer and 6.2 +/- 3.7 kg-NH3 yr(-1)head(-1) for the winter season. The estimated annual NH3 EF was 9.4 +/- 5.7 kg-NH3 yr(-1)head(-1) for this open-lot dairy. The estimated NH3 EF for winter was nearly 47% lower than summer EF. Primary and secondary lagoons (approximately 37) and open-lot corrals (approximately 63%) in summer, and open-lot corrals (approximately 95%) in winter were the highest contributors to NH3 emissions for the open-lot dairy. These EF estimates using the FC protocol and real-time analyzer were lower than many previously reported EFs estimated based on nitrogen mass balance and nitrogen content in manure. The difference between the overall emissions from each season was due to ambient temperature variations and loading rates of manure on GLAS. There was spatial variation of NH3 emission from the open-lot earthen corrals due to variable animal density within feeding and shaded and dry divisions of the open lot. This spatial variability was attributed to dispirit manure loading within these areas.
Authors:
Saqib Mukhtar; Atilla Mutlu; Sergio C Capareda; Calvin B Parnell
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)     Volume:  58     ISSN:  1096-2247     ISO Abbreviation:  J Air Waste Manag Assoc     Publication Date:  2008 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-04-01     Completed Date:  2008-04-23     Revised Date:  2008-06-30    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9503111     Medline TA:  J Air Waste Manag Assoc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  369-76     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2117, USA. mukhtar@tamu.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis*
Ammonia / analysis*
Animals
Calibration
Cattle
Dairying*
Environmental Monitoring
Seasons*
Texas
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 7664-41-7/Ammonia
Comments/Corrections
Erratum In:
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2008 Jun;58(6):729

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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