Document Detail


Scientific foundations of hormesis. Part 2. Maturation, strengths, limitations, and possible applications in toxicology, pharmacology, and epidemiology.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12809434     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The notion of hormesis has undergone numerous modifications in the course of the 20th century. Because of its unfortunate association with homeopathy, hormesis did not gain acceptance among biomedical professionals. The lack of a plausible mechanism for its occurrence may have contributed much to the rejection of this concept. This treatise outlines the conceptual struggle for an understanding of the widespread occurrence of low dose effects that appear to be opposite to those caused by high doses as also seen in hormesis. An incomplete conceptualization of time as a fundamental variable of effects (in addition to dose) is identified as one of the major reasons why hermetic responses were not observed more frequently than was reported by Calabrese and Baldwin. The definition of hormesis as an (over)compensation response to an inhibitory signal lacks a designation for (over)compensation responses to stimulatory signals in the other direction. Hormoligosis, which was coined by Luckey for all low-dose stimulatory responses of toxins, is suggested as a suitable term for generalizing the latter types of effects. Both types of effects are recognized as originating in a homeostatic overcompensation response that optimizes the ability of an organism to meet challenges beyond the limits of normal (unexercised) adaptation. Thus, repeated biochemical/physiologic/immunological, etc. exercises like physical exercise make an organism more fit and hence both hormetic and hormoligotic effects will have life-prolonging consequences. A more complete generalization was developed by linking hormesis/hormoligosis with the vast literature on Selye's general adaptation syndrome to stress. According to this broader view, stress is just one type of homeostatic exercise making organisms more fit for future biochemical/physiological/immunological, etc.challenges. Therefore, both hormesis and hormoligosis are manifestations of two nonmutational evolutionary principles--homeostasis and optimization.
Authors:
Karl K Rozman; John Doull
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Critical reviews in toxicology     Volume:  33     ISSN:  1040-8444     ISO Abbreviation:  Crit. Rev. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2003  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-06-17     Completed Date:  2003-09-12     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8914275     Medline TA:  Crit Rev Toxicol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  451-62     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas, Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160-7417, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adaptation, Physiological* / drug effects
Biological Science Disciplines*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug*
Epidemiology
Homeopathy
Homeostasis* / drug effects,  physiology
Humans
Pharmacology
Toxicology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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