Document Detail

Schizophrenia: do all roads lead to dopamine or is this where they start? Evidence from two epidemiologically informed developmental rodent models.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22832818     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The idea that there is some sort of abnormality in dopamine (DA) signalling is one of the more enduring hypotheses in schizophrenia research. Opinion leaders have published recent perspectives on the aetiology of this disorder with provocative titles such as 'Risk factors for schizophrenia--all roads lead to dopamine' or 'The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia--the final common pathway'. Perhaps, the other most enduring idea about schizophrenia is that it is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Those of us that model schizophrenia developmental risk-factor epidemiology in animals in an attempt to understand how this may translate to abnormal brain function have consistently shown that as adults these animals display behavioural, cognitive and pharmacological abnormalities consistent with aberrant DA signalling. The burning question remains how can in utero exposure to specific (environmental) insults induce persistent abnormalities in DA signalling in the adult? In this review, we summarize convergent evidence from two well-described developmental animal models, namely maternal immune activation and developmental vitamin D deficiency that begin to address this question. The adult offspring resulting from these two models consistently reveal locomotor abnormalities in response to DA-releasing or -blocking drugs. Additionally, as adults these animals have DA-related attentional and/or sensorimotor gating deficits. These findings are consistent with many other developmental animal models. However, the authors of this perspective have recently refocused their attention on very early aspects of DA ontogeny and describe reductions in genes that induce or specify dopaminergic phenotype in the embryonic brain and early changes in DA turnover suggesting that the origins of these behavioural abnormalities in adults may be traced to early alterations in DA ontogeny. Whether the convergent findings from these two models can be extended to other developmental animal models for this disease is at present unknown as such early brain alterations are rarely examined. Although it is premature to conclude that such mechanisms could be operating in other developmental animal models for schizophrenia, our convergent data have led us to propose that rather than all roads leading to DA, perhaps, this may be where they start.
D Eyles; J Feldon; U Meyer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2012-02-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Translational psychiatry     Volume:  2     ISSN:  2158-3188     ISO Abbreviation:  Transl Psychiatry     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-07-26     Completed Date:  2013-03-04     Revised Date:  2013-07-12    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101562664     Medline TA:  Transl Psychiatry     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  e81     Citation Subset:  IM    
Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Attention / physiology
Brain / physiopathology*
Cytokines / physiology*
Disease Models, Animal*
Dopamine / physiology*
Interferon Inducers / pharmacology
Maternal-Fetal Exchange / immunology,  physiology*
Motor Activity / physiology
Poly I-C / pharmacology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / physiopathology*
Schizophrenia / physiopathology*
Sensory Gating / physiology
Signal Transduction / physiology*
Vitamin D Deficiency / physiopathology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cytokines; 0/Interferon Inducers; 24939-03-5/Poly I-C

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