Document Detail

Salt sensitivity and hypertension after menopause: role of nitric oxide and angiotensin II.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16645264     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and renal disease. After menopause, the incidence of hypertension increases in women to levels that equal or exceed that in men, suggesting a protective role of female sex hormones. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with an increased risk for development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We and others have demonstrated that after menopause, the prevalence of salt sensitivity increases, suggesting that female sex hormones influence renal sodium handling and blood pressure regulation. A homeostatic balance between the counteracting effects of nitric oxide (NO) and angiotensin (Ang) II on pressure natriuresis, renal hemodynamics, tubular sodium reabsorption, and oxidative stress plays an important role in modulating salt sensitivity as well as hypertensive end-organ injury. Estrogens modulate the activity and expression of NO and Ang II. We infer that after menopause, estrogen deficiency promotes an unbalance between NO and Ang II, resulting in disturbed renal sodium handling, oxidative stress, and hypertension, particularly in genetically prone women. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of postmenopausal hypertension and associated cardiovascular and renal diseases should provide insights into preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Ivonne Hernandez Schulman; Leopoldo Raij
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review     Date:  2006-04-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of nephrology     Volume:  26     ISSN:  0250-8095     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Nephrol.     Publication Date:  2006  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-05-31     Completed Date:  2006-10-26     Revised Date:  2007-02-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8109361     Medline TA:  Am J Nephrol     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  170-80     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
Nephrology and Hypertension Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Division of Nephrology and Hypertension and Vascular Biology Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33125, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Angiotensin II / metabolism*
Estrogens / metabolism
Hypertension / etiology*
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Nitric Oxide / metabolism*
Rats, Inbred Dahl
Sodium Chloride, Dietary / toxicity*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Estrogens; 0/Sodium Chloride, Dietary; 10102-43-9/Nitric Oxide; 11128-99-7/Angiotensin II

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