Document Detail


Saliva as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide and immune markers in sport and exercise science.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21474377     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Objectives: This paper discusses the use of saliva analysis as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide, and immune markers of sports training. Design: Salivary gland physiology, regarding the regulation and stimulation of saliva secretion, as well as methodological issues including saliva collection, storage and analysis are addressed in this paper. The effects of exercise on saliva composition are then considered. Method: Exercise elicits changes in salivary levels of steroid hormones, immunoglobulins, antimicrobial proteins and enzymes. Cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone can be assessed in saliva, providing a non-invasive option to assess the catabolic and anabolic effects of exercise. Validation studies using blood and salivary measures of steroid hormones are addressed in this paper. Effects of acute exercise and training on salivary immunoglobulins (SIgA, SIgM, SIgG) and salivary antimicrobial proteins, including α-amylase, lysozyme and lactoferrin, are also discussed. Results: Analysis of cortisol and testosterone in saliva may help detect the onset of non-functional overreaching and subsequently may help to prevent the development of overtraining syndrome. Assessment of salivary immunoglobulins and antimicrobial proteins has been shown to successfully represent the effects of exercise on mucosal immunity. Increases in SIgA and antimicrobial proteins concentration and/or secretion rate are associated with acute exercise whereas conversely, decreases have been reported in athletes over a training season leaving the athlete susceptible for upper respiratory tract infections. Conclusions: The measurement of physiological biomarkers in whole saliva can provide a significant tool for assessing the immunological and endocrinological status associated with exercise and training.
Authors:
Elena Papacosta; George P Nassis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-4-6
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1878-1861     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-4-8     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9812598     Medline TA:  J Sci Med Sport     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Loughborough University, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
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