Document Detail


Runoff phosphorus losses as related to phosphorus source, application method, and application rate on a Piedmont soil.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15254125     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Land application of animal manures and fertilizers has resulted in an increased potential for excessive P losses in runoff to nutrient-sensitive surface waters. The purpose of this research was to measure P losses in runoff from a bare Piedmont soil in the southeastern United States receiving broiler litter or inorganic P fertilizer either incorporated or surface-applied at varying P application rates (inorganic P, 0-110 kg P ha(-1); broiler litter, 0-82 kg P ha(-1)). Rainfall simulation was applied at a rate of 76 mm h(-1). Runoff samples were collected at 5-min intervals for 30 min and analyzed for reactive phosphorus (RP), algal-available phosphorus (AAP), and total phosphorus (TP). Incorporation of both P sources resulted in P losses not significantly different than the unfertilized control at all application rates. Incorporation of broiler litter decreased flow-weighted concentration of RP in runoff by 97% and mass loss of TP in runoff by 88% compared with surface application. Surface application of broiler litter resulted in runoff containing between 2.3 and 21.8 mg RP L(-1) for application rates of 8 to 82 kg P ha(-1), respectively. Mass loss of TP in runoff from surface-applied broiler litter ranged from 1.3 to 8.5 kg P ha(-1) over the same application rates. Flow-weighted concentrations of RP and mass losses of TP in runoff were not related to application rate when inorganic P fertilizer was applied to the soil surface. Results for this study can be used by P loss assessment tools to fine-tune P source, application rate, and application method site factors, and to estimate extreme-case P loss from cropland receiving broiler litter and inorganic P fertilizers.
Authors:
David D Tarkalson; Robert L Mikkelsen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of environmental quality     Volume:  33     ISSN:  0047-2425     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Environ. Qual.     Publication Date:    2004 Jul-Aug
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-07-15     Completed Date:  2005-01-14     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330666     Medline TA:  J Environ Qual     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1424-30     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, West Central Research and Extension Center, 461 West University Drive, North Platte, NE 69101, USA. dtarkalson2@unl.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Agriculture
Algae / physiology
Animals
Biological Availability
Chickens
Fertilizers*
Manure
Phosphorus / analysis*
Rain
Refuse Disposal
Soil Pollutants / analysis*
Water Movements
Water Pollutants / analysis*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Fertilizers; 0/Manure; 0/Soil Pollutants; 0/Water Pollutants; 7723-14-0/Phosphorus

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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