Document Detail

Rubber and plastic ammunition lethal injuries: the Israeli experience.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9149508     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Rubber and plastic ammunition was used by the Israeli Defence Forces between the years 1987 and 1993 (Intifada) almost exclusively as a deterrent to aggression by the Palestinian civilian population in the occupied territories of Gaza, Judea and Samaria. While designed to avoid the serious wounds and deaths caused by the use of conventional military ammunition, the firing of rubber and plastic bullets has resulted in extensive injuries and more than 20 deaths. The data from the autopsies of 17 of these victims, mostly teenagers, were analysed. Ten of the victims died from injuries inflicted by Improved Rubber Bullets, while the other seven succumbed to injuries caused by Plastic Bullets. In most instances, the cause of death was related to injuries to the brain. Ballistic features of non-conventional bullets are discussed, and suggestions to curtail the serious injuries and fatalities arising from their use are given, with emphasis on firing from a safe range. British and South African experience with this type of ammunition is compared with our observations.
J Hiss; F N Hellman; T Kahana
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medicine, science, and the law     Volume:  37     ISSN:  0025-8024     ISO Abbreviation:  Med Sci Law     Publication Date:  1997 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-07-28     Completed Date:  1997-07-28     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0400721     Medline TA:  Med Sci Law     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  139-44     Citation Subset:  IM    
L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel.
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MeSH Terms
Autopsy / methods
Cause of Death
Firearms / legislation & jurisprudence*
Forensic Medicine*
Israel / epidemiology
Wounds, Gunshot / mortality*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Plastics; 9006-04-6/Rubber

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