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Role of hemodynamic forces in the ex vivo arterialization of human saphenous veins.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23351647     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Human saphenous vein grafts are one of the salvage bypass conduits when endovascular procedures are not feasible or fail. Understanding the remodeling process that venous grafts undergo during exposure to arterial conditions is crucial to improve their patency, which is often compromised by intimal hyperplasia. The precise role of hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and arterial pressure in this remodeling is not fully characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of arterial shear stress and pressure on vein wall remodeling and to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: An ex vivo vein support system was modified for chronic (up to 1 week), pulsatile perfusion of human saphenous veins under controlled conditions that permitted the separate control of arterial shear stress and different arterial pressure (7 mm Hg or 70 mm Hg). RESULTS: Veins perfused for 7 days under high pressure (70 mm Hg) underwent significant development of a neointima compared with veins exposed to low pressure (7 mm Hg). These structural changes were associated with altered expression of several molecular markers. Exposure to an arterial shear stress under low pressure increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 at the transcript, protein, and activity levels. This increase was enhanced by high pressure, which also increased TIMP-2 protein expression despite decreased levels of the cognate transcript. In contrast, the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 increased with shear stress but was not modified by pressure. Levels of the venous marker Eph-B4 were decreased under arterial shear stress, and levels of the arterial marker Ephrin-B2 were downregulated under high-pressure conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This model is a valuable tool to identify the role of hemodynamic forces and to decipher the molecular mechanisms leading to failure of human saphenous vein grafts. Under ex vivo conditions, arterial perfusion is sufficient to activate the remodeling of human veins, a change that is associated with the loss of specific vein markers. Elevation of pressure generates intimal hyperplasia, even though veins do not acquire arterial markers. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The pathological remodeling of the venous wall, which leads to stenosis and ultimately graft failure, is the main limiting factor of human saphenous vein graft bypass. This remodeling is due to the hemodynamic adaptation of the vein to the arterial environment and cannot be prevented by conventional therapy. To develop a more targeted therapy, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in intimal hyperplasia is essential, which requires the development of ex vivo models of chronic perfusion of human veins.
Authors:
Xavier Berard; Sébastien Déglise; Florian Alonso; François Saucy; Paolo Meda; Laurence Bordenave; Jean-Marc Corpataux; Jacques-Antoine Haefliger
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of vascular surgery     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1097-6809     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Vasc. Surg.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-28     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8407742     Medline TA:  J Vasc Surg     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Department of Vascular Surgery, Pellegrin Hospital, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
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