Document Detail

The role of histamine degradation gene polymorphisms in moderating the effects of food additives on children's ADHD symptoms.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20551163     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Food additives can exacerbate ADHD symptoms and cause non-immunoglobulin E-dependent histamine release from circulating basophils. However, children vary in the extent to which their ADHD symptoms are exacerbated by the ingestion of food additives. The authors hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms affecting histamine degradation would explain the diversity of responses to additives. METHOD: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, challenges involving two food color additive and sodium benzoate (preservative) mixtures in a fruit drink were administered to a general community sample of 3-year-old children (N = 153) and 8/9-year-old children (N = 144). An aggregate ADHD symptom measure (based on teacher and parent blind ratings of behavior, blind direct observation of behavior in the classroom, and--for 8/9-year-old children only--a computerized measure of attention) was the main outcome variable. RESULTS: The adverse effect of food additives on ADHD symptoms was moderated by histamine degradation gene polymorphisms HNMT T939C and HNMT Thr105Ile in 3- and 8/9-year-old children and by a DAT1 polymorphism (short versus long) in 8/9-year-old children only. There was no evidence that polymorphisms in catecholamine genes COMT Val108Met, ADRA2A C1291G, and DRD4-rs7403703 moderated the effect on ADHD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Histamine may mediate the effects of food additives on ADHD symptoms, and variations in genes influencing the action of histamine may explain the inconsistency between previous studies. Genes influencing a range of neurotransmitter systems and their interplay with environmental factors, such as diet, need to be examined to understand genetic influences on ADHD symptoms.
Jim Stevenson; Edmund Sonuga-Barke; Donna McCann; Kate Grimshaw; Karen M Parker; Matthew J Rose-Zerilli; John W Holloway; John O Warner
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-06-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of psychiatry     Volume:  167     ISSN:  1535-7228     ISO Abbreviation:  Am J Psychiatry     Publication Date:  2010 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-09-09     Completed Date:  2010-09-24     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370512     Medline TA:  Am J Psychiatry     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1108-15     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, England.
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MeSH Terms
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / chemically induced*,  diagnosis,  genetics*
Diet / adverse effects
Dopamine / metabolism
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics
Food Additives / adverse effects*,  pharmacology
Food Coloring Agents / adverse effects,  pharmacology
Histamine / genetics*,  metabolism
Histamine N-Methyltransferase / genetics
Histamine Release / drug effects,  genetics
Linkage Disequilibrium
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
Receptors, Dopamine D4 / drug effects,  genetics
Reg. No./Substance:
0/DRD4 protein, human; 0/Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0/Food Additives; 0/Food Coloring Agents; 0/SLC6A3 protein, human; 137750-34-6/Receptors, Dopamine D4; 51-45-6/Histamine; EC N-Methyltransferase
Comment In:
Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;167(9):1023-5   [PMID:  20826852 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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