Document Detail

Risk factors for water sports-related cervical spine injuries.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16688068     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: To examine risk factors associated with water sports-related cervical spine injuries (WSCSI). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted for WSCSI from 1993 to 1997 was performed. The severity of cervical spine injury was assessed by review of medical records and imaging studies. Mechanisms of injury and activities at the time of injury were noted to determine risk factors for cervical spine injuries caused by wave forced impacts (WFI) from activities such as bodysurfing and body boarding. These risks were compared with injuries incurred by shallow water dives (SWD). RESULTS: One hundred patients were analyzed (mean age, 36 years old); 89% were male, 62% were nonresidents of Hawaii, and 75% had a large build. Patients without radiographic evidence of fractures, subluxations, and/or dislocations (n = 26) were significantly older (48 versus 32 years old, p < 0.0001) with a higher rate of pre-existing cervical spine abnormalities (65% versus 15%, p < 0.0001) compared with the remainder of patients (n = 74). Seventy-seven percent of WFI involved nonresidents. The mean age of WFI patients was significantly older than patients involved in SWD (42 versus 25 years). Ninety-six percent of wave-related accidents occurred at moderately to severely rated shorebreak beaches. CONCLUSIONS: Wave forced impacts of the head with the ocean bottom typically occurred at moderate to severe shorebreaks, and involved inexperienced, large-build males in their 40s. Spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylosis may increase the risk of cervical spine injury associated with WFI due to the increased risk of neck hyperextension and hyperflexion impacts inherent to this activity.
Spencer K Y Chang; Gail T Tominaga; Jan H Wong; Edward J Weldon; Kenneth T Kaan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of trauma     Volume:  60     ISSN:  0022-5282     ISO Abbreviation:  J Trauma     Publication Date:  2006 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-05-11     Completed Date:  2006-06-14     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376373     Medline TA:  J Trauma     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1041-6     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Athletic Injuries / diagnosis,  etiology*
Bathing Beaches
Cervical Vertebrae / injuries*
Diving / injuries*
Middle Aged
Oceans and Seas
Quadriplegia / diagnosis,  etiology*
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
Spinal Cord Injuries / diagnosis,  etiology*
Spinal Fractures / diagnosis,  etiology*
Swimming / injuries*
Water Movements*
Wounds, Nonpenetrating / diagnosis,  etiology*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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