Document Detail


Risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder following an industrial disaster in a residential area: A note on the origin of observed gender differences.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20435278     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that differences in trait anxiety and trauma-related distress may mediate the gender differences observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
OBJECTIVE: We examined the contributions of gender, trait anxiety, and trauma-related distress to the development of PTSD after an industrial disaster.
METHODS: Three months after a massive explosion in a fireworks factory in Kolding, Denmark, in November 2004, residents in the surrounding area were asked to complete the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, and a questionaire designed for the present study. Using multivariable logistic regression with PTSD as the dependent variable, we examined 4 explanatory models: (1) gender; (2) gender and trait anxiety; (3) gender, trait anxiety, and perceived danger; and (4) gender, trait anxiety, perceived danger, perceived hostility, feeling isolated, depersonalization, and behavioral self-blame.
RESULTS: Fifty-one percent (N = 516; 265 women and 251 men) of the area residents participated in the study. The female-to-male ratio of PTSD was 2.4:1. Women experienced significantly more trait anxiety (P < 0.001), feelings of isolation (P < 0.005), and behavioral self-blame (P = 0.018), and less perceived danger (P = 0.034) than did men. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, gender alone predicted 3.7% of the variance in PTSD status (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.35-4.27; P < 0.005); however, in all other models, gender was not significant. The final model comprised trait anxiety (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30; P < 0.001), perceived danger (OR = 4.62; 95% Cl, 2.24-9.50; P < 0.001), perceived hostility (OR = 5.21; 95% CI, 1.93-14.09; P < 0.001), feeling isolated (OR = 3.34; 95% CI, 1.55-7.16; P < 0.002), depersonalization (OR = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.42-4.37; P < 0.001), and behavioral self-blame (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.86; P = 0.015), explaining 48.9% of the variance in PTSD severity.
CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study found that gender was no longer associated with PTSD status when trait anxiety, perceived danger and hostility, feeling isolated, depersonalization, and behavioral self-blame were taken into account.
Authors:
Helle Spindler; Ask Elklit; Dorte Christiansen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Gender medicine     Volume:  7     ISSN:  1878-7398     ISO Abbreviation:  Gend Med     Publication Date:  2010 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-05-03     Completed Date:  2010-07-23     Revised Date:  2011-01-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101225178     Medline TA:  Gend Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  156-65     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
2010 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Aarhus University, Denmark.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark / epidemiology
Disasters*
Explosions*
Female
Hostility
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Men / psychology*
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Questionnaires
Risk Factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Characteristics
Sex Distribution
Sex Factors
Social Isolation
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / epidemiology,  etiology,  psychology
Women / psychology*

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